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Full text of "Report of Professor Emmons, on His Geological Survey of North Carolina"

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"Exnc'jTjVB Document, N"o. 13-] 



S E P E T 



OF riiOFESSOIl EMMOSS, 



GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 



lORTH CASOLIKA. 



RALEIGH: 

SEATON «AIES, rEISTEUTO THE LEGISUTUEE. 



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^eandUepoit communicated to the House of 'Cosn- 
inona. Transmitted to the Senate with a proposition to print 
f^nnO copies. Ordered accordinglv . 



'i\> tht Honorable the Gensral Assembly 

of the Staie of North Carolina: 

1 herewith transmit the Report of Prof. E. "KinMONd, 
who ■p/as appointed, under tlie Act of lire lasi Session, to 
make a Geological, Mineralogical, and Agricultural Survey 
of the State. 

DAVID K. RGID. 
ExECOTiTE Department, \ 

if 



Raleigli, November 22d^ 1S52 . ; 



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REPORT. 



To Hii Excellejicy, David S. Reid, 

Governor of North Carolina : 

SIR:— 

^ 1 , Agreeably to the leqiiirement of the Act of the 
Legislature, passed the 34thJanuary, 1851, authorising a 
Geological Survey of the State, I herewith present the First 
Annual Report. 

In the discharge of tliis duty, I have deemed it advisable, 
at ihis time, and at this stage of the work, to confine my com- 
munication to two principal subjects : — the Soils and Agri- 
culture of the Lower Counties ; and the Coal Fields of Rock- 
ingham, Stokes, Chatham, and Moote Counties : — the two 
former occupying the Northern, and the latter the Central, 
portions of the State. I deem it, however, relevant to the 
subjects before me, to iritroduce the statement of such 
principles of Agriculture and Geology as may be required for 
the better understanding of these ilepartmenis ; or which are 
suggested by, or flow immediately from, facts which I have 



I hope this course will be approved of, as the subjects are 
beginning to excite public attention, and are probably among 
ihe most important matters to which the public attention as 
been turned for many years. 



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^ 3. Among many points which, have been established, of 
iate years, there are four of very great importance, namely : 
Tliai soils must contain a sufficiency of certain inorganic 
elements ; that these elements are necessary to the life of the 
plant ; that no seed can be perfected withotU them ; and, 
Unrdly, that they are essential to the life of the dnimed'sub- 
sisting on vegetable food. It follows, from these established 
points, that some, at least, of the important products of life 
are derived from, the soil ; it being possible to trace them back 
from the animal, through the plants to thesoil. Prom this, it 
also follows, that the true method of determining the important 
elements of a soil, is, to analyse the products of life as found 
in the plant and animal. That 'Ahich is constantly found in 
(hose products, and which can be traced to no other source 
than the soil, must , of necessity, be regarded as the essential 
elements of the soil. We can arrive at no other conclusion , 
and furthermore, by no other method can we reach a correct 
conclusion. This method has been followed ; and it has 
resulted in the discovery that the following substances are the 
essential ones which have been alluded to, namely : — Phoa- 
phDricacid, Sulphur, Polaah, Soda, Lime, Mngnesia, Oxydc 
of Iron, Sihca, Nitrogen, Oxygen, Hydrogen, Carbon, Water, 
Ammonia, Chlorine, and small quantities of Fluorine. 

I might have left out of this list oxygen, hydrogen, nilro- 
gen, carbon, and ammonia, inasmuch as there are, it is sup- 
posed, other sources of supply than that of the soil. It is not, 
however.ftilly established that, in the arrangeroenfs of nature, 
there is a full provision for tbis supply, when soils are subject- 
ed to high culture, and are required to produce more than five 
times the amount which they produce spontaneously. It is 
undoubtedly true, that the vegetable kingdom can sustain 
itself by the instrumentality of the common sources of supply ; 
yet, when a species of this kingdom, aa Corn, for example, 
ia required to yield its sixty bushels to the acre, we can see no 
provision for this result in its wild and uncultivated stale. 

Hence, under culture, where the sod is thus heavily (asetl to 
meet the demands of civilized life, there it fails, in process of 



abyCOOglC 



Vlme, tosupply them, and means to supply tliem are called, 
for, and even required, in ocder to sustain the soil undei its 
increased products. Those elements, then, which constitute 
pacta of the atmosphere, as carbonic acid and ammonia, which 
are furnished in sufficient quantities to plants, growing' apon- 
tuheously, ttre not supplied, as I have already hmted, when 
soils are put under heavy culture ; or, they may not be sup- 
plied in sufficient quantities to meet the demands of a succes- 
sion of crops. 

§ 3. As I shall have frequent occasion to refer to those 
elements of soil, generally known aa inorganic elements, 
I propose, in this piace, to speak of them 5 and to state some 
of their properties, uses, and the sources ivlience they are de- 
rived, 

1. Phosphoric Acid.— In its separate slate, insnlated 
from other bodies, it is an exceeding sour substance. It is 
solid, and resembles flakes of snow, when freshly prepared ; 
but, in consequence of its avidity for water, it soon becomes, 
in the atmosphere, a limpid fluid. Like other sour or acid 
bodies, it readily combines with potash, soda, lime, and many 
other bodies ; and forms, with them, new compounds, whieh 
arp called phospJiates. Hence we have phosphate of lime, — 
which exists bolh as a natural substance in rocks, and in the 
animalldngdom in bones ; and it is mainly in this form or 
combination that it is known in the animal and vegetable 
kingdom. Animal bodies all conlain more or less of phos- 
phate of lime, and probably it is among the most important. 
The bones, liowever, conlain more of it than other parts ; and, 
in its absence, and when it is diminished in quantity, they are 
soft and flexible, and unfitted to sustain the weight of the body. 

The source of phosphate of lime is the mineral kingdom. 
Probably all the rocks contain it, sometimes in krge masses j 
but, usually, it seems to be diffused through them in fine 
jiarticles. When they decompose and disintegrate, it is, of 
course, mixed with the soli. It is more abundant in granite, 
.greenstone, trap dykes, and volcanic products, than in oLlie 
rocks. This fact seems to show Ihac igneous rocks, thepyre 



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, are the true sources of ihis important substance. 
In New York, I discovered, in 1837, a vein of it subordinate 
to a trap dyke, and in connexion also with the primary or the 
pyrochryslaiiine limestone— all of which may be classed toge- 
ther as igneous produets. This vein, in one place, was seven 
feet wide ; and hence furnished a lai^e amount of lime for 
agricultural purposes. In the same section, I discovered (he 
same substance associated with the magnetic oxyde of iron, in 
small clustered crystals, forming, in many places, more than 
one-half of the mass. 

In the trap dyke, this mineral phosphate is green, less hard 
than feldspar ; and, in the iron bed, in reddish, six-sided prisms. 
1 am careful to mention these facts ; for this important sub- 
stance may exist in the pyrocryetalline rocks of North '^arolina ; 
and, if in quantity, would be of great value to the agricultural 
interests of the Slate. It should he sought for in rocks of 
igneous origin ; and especially where the magnetic ores Of 
iron exist. In this stale it occurs in the marl beds, at the bot- 
tom of the shell marl ; though it is also diffused through the 
beds, in masses of small size; — itisin dark rounded and some- 
times spiral masses. In this form', it is known under the name 
of coprolUe. It is the excrement of marine animals, and con- 
tains rather more than 50 per cent, of phosphate of lime ; or 
about the same proportion as it exists in bone. These copro- 
lit^ are very valuable, and 1 have indicated the place where 
they abound the most. They seem to have been collected a' 
rhe bottom of the shell marl, and lo have been subjected (o 
attrition by the waves of the sea. They are associated with 
quartz pebbles, i-.nd generally are black or brown, and almost 
as hard as quaitz. Coprolites are found also in the coal 
siratas of Rockingham, Stokes, Chatham, and Moore, They 
have a similar origin to those of the marl beds ; but ihey 
do not .exist in sufhcient abundance, as 1 have seen in either 
formation, to warrant the expense of esuacting them. Still 
the facts are important, and should not be forgoiien. The 
importance of ihis substance cannot be doubted, when it is 
known that Indian corn, wheat, rye, oats, barley, all the 



abyCOOglC 



cerealsj potatoes, and all the tubers and tap-rooted plants con- 
tain it, and especially the cereals. A soil destitute of it is 
totally barren. 

S. Sulphur, — It is a substance too well known to require 
adescription. It isnot so well known, however,.tbat it is an 
important element in the vegetable and animal kingdoms. It 
is found in the auimal tissues. Peas and clover belong to a 
family of plants in which it is always found. It is an element 
of dl of vitriol; end hence one of the elements of gypsum. A 
class of minerals called sulphurets also contain it. 

3. Potash. — Equally well known is potash. It is a con- 
stituent of granite, existing in the feldspar of the rock in the 
proportion of 16 per cent. Owing to its presence, this mineral 
is subject to decomposition, and then forms kaolin ; a substance 
employed in porcelain. Other minerals contain it. The 
green sand, one of the varieties of marl in the Eastern Coua- 
tics, owes its fertilizing properties to potash. It plays an im- 
poitaut part, bol,b in the organic and inorganic world. It is 
instrumental in giving solubility to silex ; and hence prepares 
this substance to be taken up info the tissues of plants. In com- 
bination with potash, silex is taken up, and made a part of 
the straw of wheat, rye, and oats, and imparts that strength 
which is necessary to enable the plani to stand up. When 
deficient in silex, wheat, rye, and other grains fall, and are 
injured or destroyed. 

Potash is an expensive fertilizer, ranking, in this respect,, 
with phosphate of lime. To this, more than any other ele- 
ment, ashes owe their value as fertilizers. Argilaceous soils 
contain it, in combination with silex, ; but the combination is 
insoluble, and requires the addition oi lime to free it from a 
portion of silica, in order to bring it into a soluble condition. 

4. Soda.— This alkali is more abundant than potash, and 
beds of nitrate of soda exist in climate where no rain falls. 
Its office, in plants and animals, is not very dissimilar to that 
ofpi>tash. The great source of 'it is the sea, and beds of 
rock salt. 



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5. Lime. — Lime, in some form or combination, is found Irs 
all parts of plants and animals. The bark of trees abounds 
in il, where it serves to protect the wood from injury ; and the 
testaceous covering of ahe!I-fish, oysters, and clanis, together 
with the iniegumenis of crabs, and the substance of corals. In 
bones, it is in combination with phosphoric acid ; while, in 
the bark of plants, it is probably in combination with organic 
acids ; and, in the testaceous covering, it is combined with car- 
bonic acid. It is more generally diffused in the mineral 
wgrld than either of the alkalies, or alkaline earths ; and still 
it is one of those siibslances which is wanting in soils, and 
that, too, when they exist in the vicinity of limestone rocks. 

Ijime also exists in the bones of man, in the proportion of 
about twelve per cent. From its univei'sal diifusion in the 
vegetable and animal kingdoms, it is evident it is one of the 
important elements of the soil. Its presence io the soil, 
however, is not so common as might be expected from its 
gieat abundance m the mineral kingdom. We have no cal- 
careous soils, even upon our limestone, though there may be 
patcliM of a few ya.rda in extent where lime is the principal 
substance. Much uncertainty prevails in the use of lime. I 
shall, however, reserve what I have to say, under this head, 
until I have occasion to speak of the use of maris. 

6. Magnesia.— It is often maintained thai magnesia is 
hurtful to soils. When caustic, it docs not become mild so 
soon as lime ; and hence is liable to absorb the water which is 
lequiied I'y plants. Yet the phosphate of magnesia is a con. 
stant element of the wheat, rye, and corn, as well also as in 
all vegetable food. It exists in soil; is important to fertility ; 
but is less so than lime. Its source is infhemagnesian rocks, 
as they are termed, such as soapelone and stealitetalcose slate. 
It is far less less soluble than lime. Wheri barrenness appeals 
in cormexion with serpentine, it is not- because magnesia is 
injurious, but because other earths are wanting or absent. 
Magnesian limestones have rarely, if ever, injured vegetatiots 
in this counlry, though prejudices exist abroad. 



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7. Silica.— In fliiil and rock crystals, we have examples 
of this earth. Ii is harder than glass ; and, in the common 
form in which it is found, is insoluble. It appears, in this 
form, to be one of the most indifferent of all bodies. Yet it 
is found in such combinations that it is freely taken up by tke 
roots of grasses, and plants of this family. 4t constitutes a 
very large propoitionof the earth's crust. In soils, it varies in 
quantity. Its proper proportion is about 85 per cent, ; but 
good soils often contain less, and two oi three per cent, more. 
The office which eilex performs is to preserve a due amount 
of the coareer matter : for, when a soil is composed of impal- 
pable matter, it is comparatively barren ; and siles, from its 
excessive hardness, resists the wear and action of the elements. 
By being commingled with clay, it imparts porosiiy and loose- 
ness ; permits the roots to penetrate deeply; while, at tlie 
same time, air and moisture permeate through the mass as far 
as roots can find their way. The use of silex is, therefore, 
partly mechanical am! partly physiological ; being necessary 
in soils to preserve porosity, and particularly necessary to the 
cereals to protect the straw and kernels, and give elasticity and 
strength to the whole plant. So abundant is this substance, 
however, tliat it is never necessary to add it to the soil, except 
for mechanical use ; — potash and lime are often added for the 
purpose of freeing it from its insoluble combinations, when 
the grains are special objects of culture. 

8, Oxide of Iron. — Analyses of organic bodies prove the 
existence of iron in them ; and in those animals which have 
red blood, it is satisfactorily demonsttated that it serves to main- 
tain the heat of the body. In addition to this, its salutaiy ef- 
fects upon the human system prove, also, that it performs 
some other office besides. It is, then, ftn important element, 
physiologically. In the soil, however, it is supposed to be 
concerned in developing or forming ammonia. Iron, by it- 
self, is rarely used as. a fertilizer. The oxide, however, taken 
from tlie smith's forge, intermixed with refuse matter collect- 
ing about a smith's shop, is often highly beneficial to fruit 
trees ; and pear trees, especially, have derived essential benefit 
by the application. 



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10 

9. Amiionia. — It is known by everybody, under the name 
of harlehorn. In this State, however, it is not applied to 
pIaiils,or lo soils. It belongs both to the soil and' atmosphere. 
Nitrogen, an element of the atmosphere and ammonia, is an 
essenliaJ conslituent of the cereals, being one of the compo- 
nents of gluten, or the pasty part of flour. It is supposed 
that the sails of ammonia are the media through whi';h nitro- 
gen gains access to the grain ; and there are results of experi- 
ments which go to prove that, if it is wished to increase the 
wheat crop, it requires the addition of substances which will 
furnish ammonia — that the fertilizers I have noticed in the 
foregoing paragraphs are not sufficient, or are inefficient, in the 
case of wheat; unless they are niingfed with ammoniacal com- 
pounds. l*hosphate of lime will greatly increase the turnip 
crop ; yet, if applied to kvheat, when the soil is unexhausted, 
with a view to increase the prodtjct, it fails, unless ammonia 
is furnished also. Yet, on poor and exhausted lands, phos- 
phate of limeisltHown to produce surprising effects. In flesh 
soils, plaster and charcoal readily absorb ammonia. 

Water. — This element is thegroai solvent of the different 
inorganic bodies upon which I have been speaking. Nothing 
can act and become beneficial to vegetation, undl it is dissolv- 
ed in water. It is,, therefore, the medium through which all 
the essential substances find dieiu way into animal and vege- 
table (issues. The effect of much is injurious. Standing, as 
it frequently does upon soils,, it diminishes their tentperature, 
and maintains them in a state permanently too low to admit 
of the cuhivationof the valuable plants. Draining lands of 
superfluous water is, in effect, raising their temperature several 
degrees. Where there is too much water, another condition 
exists incompatible with that cultivation which the cereals re- 
quire ; — the soil is too compact, and it eannot be made jio- 
rous while in that condition. Draining, therefore, makes the 
soil warm and loose ; — conditions essential to the growth of 
Ihe most important productions. 

Wateris indispensable, and no seed can genninate without it. 
Soils differ as lo the force with which they retain or absorb it. 



abyClOOgle 



11 

SJlicious soils part with it readily, and absorb it slowly. Of 
all Bubstaaces which retain water, finely divided peaty matter 
is the stronsest ; — it exceeds clay and marl. Nest to peaty 
marl, fine marl, containing some oi^nic matter, ranks the 
next. 

10. CARBONrc Acid. — The atmo'?phere is regarded as ttie 
source from which it is obtained by plants. In thi.s combma- 
tion, it is always produced, and it is generated in the soil. 
Carbonic acid is a solvent. Water charged with it dissolves 
rocks. Tlie almost insoluble phosphate of lime is thus dis- 
solved la water by its aid. 

Leaves are supposed to absorb it from the atmosphese ; and 
to obtain, in this way, the carbon required to build isp their 
structure. Slill, the water in the soil holds it in solution ; and 
it is, under those circumstances, furnished the plant by its 
roots. This seems to be the channel through which carbonic 
acid may morenaturally, course throughits tissues, when it is 
assimilated. Carbonaceous,- or peaty matters, also supply it. 

H. Chloriine. — Common salt is a combination of soda 
and this substance. The term chloride is applied to such 
combinations.. By itself it ia a poison ; in combination with 
soda, It is a fertilizer. lis true value, however, is not well 
settted. Some esteem it highly ; others do not. On wheat 
its effects are scarcely perceptible. It promotes the growth 
and yield of plums, and it may be taken up in sufficient 
quantity to give tliem a saline taste. 

12. Fluoiune. — It is found in combination with lime, con- 
stituting the mineral called Jlwir spar. Although it is a rare 
substance, yet it is found in the enamel of teeth, in bones, and 
in milk. It is an associate of phosphate of lime. Jt is never 
added to soils by itself; but, as it accompanies phosphate of 
lime, 1 believe, in all cases, it is applied when phosphate of 
lime is used.* 

* in the foregoing pages, J have used the word element in 
a difi'erent sense from (hat in which it ia employed in chemical 
works. Real elements, or simple bodies, are never employed 
as fertilizers. They must be compounded, before they are 
received as elements. 



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12 



The foregoing substances ace detected in the ash of pianla. 
When plants, wood, coal, &c. are burned, the ash that 
remains is calkd t!ie inorganic part of the plant. If they 
are biirat carefully, in a proper flame, we (ind . that the 
particles composing the inorganic pan preserves a reticulated 
structure, and often appears as woven. It seems, thetefore, 
to be tlesigned to pejform the part of a skeleton lo the plant, 
and give it firmness and elasticity. Bven the ijelicate petal of 
a plant has its line woven skeleton. Two things should be 
observed o^ the inoiganic part : — plants differ imiong them- 
selves in the quantity Ihey conlaiii ; and the parts ol the same 
plant differ also in this respect. These two facts lie at the foun- 
dation of an improved and refined system of agriculture. 
That improved system would consist in adapting the quantity 
of the inorganic elements to the special wants of the plant. 
In the present stateof our knowledge, something can be done, 
but i(. must be done imperfeclly. Hundreds of acres under 
cultivation can receive only rough and imperfect tillage. Spe- 
cial agriculture, — that which is conducted to meet the special 
wants of the crop^ — must limit and confine the operations to 
small plantations. This special agiiculture is, in pait, observ- 
ed, when the planter and farmer puts his wheat on soils best 
adapted to wheat ; or when his Indian corn and potatoes are 
cidtivaled on soil best adapted to them. But when the sys- 
tem of artificial farming is undertaken, it is necessary that 
more Imowledge of the soil should be obtained than can be 
procured by simple inspection. A full knowledge of the com- 
posifion of soils is the first step towards real improvement in 
the right direction. To carry the improvement to perfec- 
tion, a full knowledge of the composition of plants . is also 
necessary But plants vary much in their relations to light, 
and shade, heat and cold, to dry and wet soils. The condi- 
tions of vegetation best adapted to plants, or to crops, must 
receive study ; — tne reasons why they vary should be deter- 
mined. All these points require a knowledge of the economy 
of vegetation, or of its physiology. The range of knowledge 
required for ihe practice of a special agriculture, or where spe- 



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13 



cial adaptations are attempted, is by no means confined (o a 
small compass. This is not to be regarded as a discouraging 
feature. To progress, however, requires the utmost patience? 
and tbe great danger is, that discouragements will spring up at 
the slow progress which is made, and a right road will be 
abandoned, becaiiseit can be seen onlj' for short distances ; the 
end is yet hid in mist and doubt. 

The organic part of a plant, la that which is consumed dur- 
ing combustion : the products being volatiie, are all dissipated. 
It forms by far the greatest part of the vegetable. Ita source is 
re^ar Jedj by Liebig, as the atmosphere. Still, the soil no 
doubt furnishes it, in the foi'in of organic salts, which are 
known under the names of crenic and apocrenjc acids in combi- 
nation with alkaline matters. These are derived from humus 
originally, plants first changingin water inlo peat, which, in 
itself, is scarcely soluble, but which becomes so, in part, by 
the action of lime. 

4. It has been stated chat certam elements are essential to a 
productive soil. Knowing before hand what those elements 
are, it eeems to be plain what couraeourenquiries should take 
when directed to the improvement of any given soil. If a 
a crop is defective in quaUty, andfalis short of ilsformer yield, it 
is evident (has there is a want of those elements which have just 
been described ; the course to be taken then, is to analyze the 
soil, especially those patches where the failure in quantity is 
the greatest. If it is found deficient, in some of those ele- 
ments, we are put in, a way to correct the evil. It is possible 
that this report may fall into the hands of a few who may 
wish to know the chemicij composition of soil, really poor, 
as well as those which are rich, I shall proceed to give the re- 
sults of an analysis of several kinds of soil, in order to make 
my reader better acquainted with their composition, that they 
may be used for a comparison hereafter ; and as they are taken 
from well known plantaiions in different parts of the Slate, 
the res ulfs may also be regarded with more interest than if se- 
lected from books. The planter wants to know the reason of 
the faihireof his soil to produce its customary crops. But til- 



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lage must be taken into the account, aa well as the season ; 
and, indeed, all those variations in seasons, time of planting, 
favorable conditions of soil^ &c. which are necessary to arrive 
at a true conclusion. ' If the failures belong to successive sea- 
sons, equally favorable to the crop, there can be no doubt 
they arise from a deficiency of one or more of the inorganic 
elements of ihe soil. There may be a kind of a priori deter- 
mination of the cause of failures by looking back for several 
yenvs, and calling to mind the kind of crops taken from it. 
If Ihey have been cereal, then it is highly probable that the 
phosphates and potash have been deficient. If tobacco has 
been cultivated several successive seasons, much potash has 
been carried away.: or, if the potash is deficient in the soil 
originally, lime may take its place. 

It is proper to say, in this place, that a registry of crops will 
be found useful ; for, if the quantity removed Irom the soil 
is noted, the numher of pounds removed of either potash, 
phosphate of lime, or lime, may be calculated. 

§ 5. -I shall proceed now to give a number of analyses of 
soils, for the double purpose I have stated. The first class he- 
long to (he poorer soils, and have their representatives too com- 
mon upon the Atlantic slope of this State, it would be un- 
just to attribute the fauUs of the soil entirely to culture and 
bad husbandry. The U'uth is, they have a sandy basis, and 
when cultivated for several years in succession, without return- 
ing something iu the way of fertilizers^.a fine marine sand is 
exposed, which, in some plaees, is so loose in its texture as 
to permit the vegetable matter to be blown from its surface. 

The first examples of soil show a deficiency in several ele- 
ments,; and from these deficiencies others have followed, 
which affect it mechanically. 

The sainpics were taken from an 'elevated part of the 
I'anola plantation at Tarboro'. The. proprietor are K.. Dancy 
and Norfleet, who are pursuing agriculture as a profession. 
Their success is proof that Ihey are pursuing the right road. 



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Surface. 


Subsoil. 


Water, 






1.13 


0.92 


Organic matter, 
Sites, 






2.93 
93.T0 


1.72 
94.40 


Aiiiinina and peroxyiie 


of Iiron, 


1.33 


2.40 


Carbonate of lime. 






.33 


.20 


Phosphate of lime, 

in 100 grains, 
JVIagnesia, 
Soluble silica, 


inappreciable 


.00 
.14 
.11 


.00 
.06 
.09 


Potash, 






.03 


.04 


Soda, 






.01 


.03 



The palpable deficiencies, both in the surface and subsoil,. 
ate: — 1. Alumina, and per oxyde of iron ; 2. Lime; 3. Phos- 
phate of lime ; 4. Potash and aoda ; 5. Organic matter. 

These deficieneies leave a great excess of fine sand. It is 
proper, to remark, that the samples do not represent the cha- 
racter of the field, but simply an acre or two which overlooks 
it. It is a sandy knoll, and its soil is one of those extremes 
which are often met with. Such eminences 3ufi*er more by 
cultivation than the lower parts , and, hence, are liable to be- 
come bare, unless more care is bestowed iipian their cul- 
tivation. 

The system formerly pursued, or until tlie plantation was 
purchased by its present proprietors, was the common one ; — 
asyslem which, if carried out, would end in total barrenness : — 
for that is the tenciency when fields are cultivated until they 
fall off greatly in their products, when a period of rest is al- 
lowed for their restoration. The rest being the only mode by 
which its restoration is expected, — for, if it is true that.certain 
elements are necessary to fertility, and these exist only in the 
soil, and they are removed in the crops, then, rest cannot 
restore them,— the only effect of rest is to give time .for the 
growth of trees, whose roots penetiate deeply, and bring up 
from greater depths than the cultivated plants can, these inor- 
ganic elements, which,when assimilated and formed into leaves 
and other parts, either fall again to the ground in due time, 



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and give back to the eartli what had been taken ftora it. By 
Ihis process, the inorganic matter is transferred from the depth 
of many feet to the surface. Hence, after years of rest, there 
is an appearance of renovation. — But, let the cropping re-com- 
mence, and the result will be seen ; for it wilt require only 
half the lime to exhaust the soil. It will require, in a shorter 
lime than before, its period of rest. By this course, or .this 
rest system, the soil losea jnore of its fertilizing matter, until, 
finally, it will be so fhr exhausted, that only the most obscure 
plants can find a foothold. . 

To return to the consideration of the soils. Knowing their 
deficiency, how can they be coi'recled ? — or what course do the 
propnetora propose lo renovate this iield "?— seeing that fiiey 
. reject the rest system as a means lo fhis end,— being satiBfied 
that thpy would only entail a bairen lot lo poslerity. One 
of the means resorted to was lo furnish or supply ashes. The 
plantation bordering upon Tai livei supplied decaying logs, 
brush and leaves. These were burnt, and gave them about 
5000 bushels, at a trifling cost. The aahes contain all those 
elements which have been removed in the crops in former 
years. It is this fact which makes ashes valuablefor this pur- 
pose. I notice this fiict, not so much that this meihod wa? 
resorted to, in this instance, for a special purpose ; but because, 
in all parts of the Stale, it is possible to pursue the same plan. 
The decaying vegetable matter on the borders ol plantations 
is enormous ; and while the ashes of refuse matter can be 
proeuved at a cost so tiiHing, it is folly to purchase bonef or 
cruano. But the soil is deficient in organic matter. To sup- 
ply this, various means may be resorted lo. Anything which 
has lime contains it, and will supply. Slraw, leaves, chipsof 
the wood-yard, peat, or peaty soils hauled lo the yards and 
trod by catlie, arc the cheapest. To carry out a systim of 
supply, for losses of all kinds sustained upon a plantation, tJie 
most effectual means will be lo give to one one or two laborers 
the business of £ol!ecling ferihzers of all kinds. It is a laboi- 
which ihe disabled and inffrm can perform, especially if aided 
by a team consisting of a single mule and cart. 



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Sy this plan, the capital reciiiirecl to be expended in tlie 
purchase of guaiio and bones is much diminished ; for in the 
ashes we find phosphate of Ume, carbonate of hme, iron, 
potash, soda, and magnesia. In ail these substances the soil 
is deficient. It will produce sassafras and high briars, because 
their roots penetrate deeply, and find a store of food uncon- 
sumed by cultivation, But.the cereals, tiie plants most valua- 
ble to man, though they might exist and prodncea small crop, 
yet they cannot pay the planter, in its present state, the cost of 
tillage. The proprietors are pursuing, therefore, the most 
judicious and the cheapest plan to make this field again fertile. 
They have no marl ; but, in the ashes of useless logs and 
brush, they find abetter material. 

Similar to theforegoingsoil is one which I analyzed for Mr. 
Benjamin Brown, of Pilt County, near GreeQVJlIe. Its com- 
position is as follows : — 



W.ter, 


1.20 


Oigauic matterj 


1.30 


Silex, 


94.75 


Alumina and per oxyde of iron, 


148 


Lime, 


1.03 


Piiospiiates inappreciable, 


.00 


laagnesia, 


trace. 


Polasli, 


.01 


Soda, 


.02 


Soluble Silica, 


.05 



This soil is less fertile ttian that of a portion of the Panola, 
farm. .Its color is a light ashj and the sand quite fine, and 
uniformly so over a lai^e field. The same plan is proper for 
the latter as the former, I may here suggest that, along with 
Bimilar means for its restoration, the cheap material of bogsatid 
wet places, clays and uneshausted surface soils, will meet someof 
the wants of the case. Their use turns however, upon the 
value of labor, or ihe cost of transportation. 

Of the same class le a soil obtained at IV^r. Swift's, Ring- 
wood, near Halifax. It is an ash gray sandy soil ; but lh« 



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particles ace angular and sharp. I found its corapositioato 
be similar to that of the two preceding. 

Water, 1.30 

Organic Matter, 1.35 

Silex, 94.15 

Alumina and per oxyde of Iron, 1.80 

Lime, .15 

Magnesia, .01 

Potash, .01 

Soda, .01 

Soj also, 1 may add to the foregoing a soil taken from tbi; 
plantation of Mr. Cromarty, near Elizabeth, on the Cape 
Fear, as it contains : — 

Water, 1^0 

Organic Mattel, 1.500 

Sites, <J4.800 

Alumina and Iron, .650 

Lime, .010 

Magnesia, tface. 

Potash, .006 

Soda, .004 

'I'iiis soil was not tested for phosphoric acid. There ia a 
remarkable deficiency of alumina and iron, in which the 
phosphoric acid, or phosphate of lime, would be found, if 
found at all. It is highly probable that it exists only in an 
extremely email per centage. 

Some portionB of iJie plantation of Mr. Pope, in Halifax, 
and of Dr. Eppes, have the same excess of sand, ami a defi- 
ciency of the moat important elements, as may be seen by the 
following statement of their composition : 



Water, 1 ,20 

Organic matter, 2,30 



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Siiex, 93.08 .92.56 
Alumina and Per Oxide, 

Of Iron . 1.64 2.70 

Carb. Lime, .08 .13 

Magnesia, .86 ,24 

Soluble Silica, .27 .10 

Potash, .01 traces. 

Soda, .00 .18 
The field of Dr. Eppes was in rye. 

There is less esliaostion in these two soils, than in some of 
the foregoing examples. It is evident, however, that there 
is a gteat excess of Baud, and a deficiency of Alumina and* 
Iron, Their presence is required to form a suitable basis 
upon which to apply soluble fertilizers. The foregoing ex- 
amples of soil belong, it will be conceded, to one class. Theca 
are, inall of ihem, both excesses of one element and defects in 
Mhers. Thev die Bliictly pooi soils from deliuenc} , and 
must be improved b) addilioji of thobe eleme its which 
are evidently in i measuie ibspot While upon this 
subject, It IS quite net-ebsaiy to ad 1 thit, although «oilb. of 
the composition which thi,foiegoing possess are unsuited to 
ihe cultivation of the cereals, still anothei class of vegetables 
find in such sols huflicicnt uuliiment Boidering the ooast 
of the Stale, the surfice is undulotrng and uses at internals 
into rounded eminences and sinks into slight depressions, 
with toleribly well defined bordeib oi nm forming as a 
whole, a rolhng surface Ihis border is ilwiys termed of a 
marine &ind whi(,h in the diieat p7rts is inteimixed with 
vegetable mattei , u^ on the slopes and tops of the eminences, 
while in the hottomol ihe bo\ 1 fro n depiessions, the vegetible 
matter occurs in much greater quantities, and even beds of 
peat are often found some two or three feet in thickness. 
Marine sand, however, is the basis of the soil, and when 
washed and dried, is often pure enough for glass. The tops 
of the rounded eminences are generally whitened with oys- 



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ter and clam shells, which are bleaching, and slowly disinte- 
grating, Thisiightsandy soil, which, under careless ciillivatioHT 
would be ccnveried into blowirja; sand in a few yeare, yields 
large profits in thecuhure of the ground-pea. This plant, 
like the common pea and clover, is oonstintionally adapted 
to this soil, and yet the inorganic matter, which ia found in 
the ash of the pea, is by no means inconsiderable. 

The plantation of Mr. Nixon is about ten mdes east 
of Wilmhigton. It is situated immediately upon the 
coast, with a soil and surface 1 have just described. 'This 
gentleman cuhivates the ground pea. The annual value of 
Ihe crop rarely falls below six thousand dollai's. This pea 
soil has ninety-five per cent, of silica^ and from one and a 

■halt to two per cent, of oi^anic matter, and less than one per 
cent of alumina and per oxyde of iron, and about ten hundred 
per cent of lime. I have not stated, 1 perceive, that beneath 
the sands there is a stratum of brick clay : it is sometimes 
within two feet of the surlace, and at othera ten feet. It k 
no doubt a layer which exerts an important influence upon the 
cultivation of the loose surface sands. It holds water, and 
hence aids in supplying water to the sands which rest upon it. 
The pea husbandry has to be conducted with care. It 
consists of an alteration of crops and a rest of one year. Thus 
to the pea crop succeeds rye, oats or millet ; the latter is re- 

.commendedjand then rest for one year. The soil should be 
disturbed as iiitie as possible ; even cattle should not be al- 
lowed to roam and feed upon the field, inasmuch as they 
break up the surface sand. The roller is an admirable instru- 
ment for these lands. The pea is planted in hills about two 
and a half to 3 feet apart. One pea ia sufficient for a hill. 
They are hoed sufficiendy to keep out the grass. The yield 
is from fifiy to seventy-five bushels per acre. One hand can 
cultivate fiveacres, The ash or inorganic m&tter of the pea 
vine is large, amounting to 10.25. The amount of lime, un- 
combined with phosphoric acid, shows that it is a lime plant. 
No doubt the comminuted shells constitute an important ele- 
ment in this sandy soil. The lime is of averagable ([uality. 



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21 



Tiic decomposing oyster shells on the summits and slopes 
furnish lime slowly to Ihi soil hy the aid of carbonic acid. 

In this connection, it will be inatrnclive to exhibit the com- 
position of a good soil— r«iie which ia adapted to a general 
cultivation : one whieh produces com, oats, potatoes, and 
even wheal. I find soils 'of this description in many places, 
and have seveial analyses of them : I shall select from my 
note book the following. The first is Icom JVIr. Swift's plan- 
tation, ia Halifax county. Its color ia brown^ and it is com- 
posed, as follows : 



Water, 


450 


Orgaoic Matter, 


6.20 


Silel, - 


74.30 


AUiniina and per oxyde of iron. 


14.00 


Phosphoric acid appreciable. 




Carbonate of lime, 


.40 


Magnesia, 


.20 


Potash, 


.05 


Soda, 


.03 



98.68 

If this soil is com'pared with the gray sandy soil of tlie same 
plantation, the differences are too shildng to escape notice. 
To remark upon each element: The water which is obtain- 
ed by drying, at 400° of fahrenheil, is the quantity which 
estperience and observation prove to be about right. The 
oigaiiic matter, which is afterwards obtained- by heating to 
redness, ia an essential material, from which oiganic saHsj 
soluble salts of lime, and the alkalies are formed, and which, 
under the forms of the so called crenates, may be introduced 
into the tissues of plants. . It is in those forms, and in these 
c(>mbinations, that organic matter, al least in part, is intro- 
duced into the system of plants. Where organic matter is 
absent ftom a soil, experiment proves that lipe seed fail to be 
produced. Silex is really the basis of ail soils, and is an 
indestructible and almost unchangeable substance : itb' 



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soluble in the presence of the olkaJies, and gives strength tec 
the stalks of the cereals. It is rarely deficient in quantity in 
Boils proper, for it seems to me that depositea of vegetable * 
matter, alone, can scarcely be called soils ; still, as certain 
plahts are produced upon such deposits, they must be ranked 
with soils. 

6. Alumina never enters into the composition of plants or 
of animals, yet it is an essential element of al! soils. The 
function it performs is that of a cement ; as it obviates or di- 
minishes the porosity of soils, and pi'evenls the too speedy 
percolation of water through fhem. It is olten in excess ; in 
many othere too little, as in the first examples given of (he 
comjrosition of one class of soils. 

The function which iron performs in a soil is not weil de- 
termined. It is, however, an element of considerable impor- 
tance to living bodies, and is always present in them. Bat, 
it is supposed by some physiologists, that it is inslruinental in 
furnishing nitrogen. It exists in two stales — protoxydeand 
deuotosyde, and is readily changed from the iafter lo the 
foimer state, in the presence of water and organic matter. 
Water is decomposed by the first, it is supposed, and the hydro- 
gen of the water is set free^ which combines with nitrogen of 
the air and forms ammonia. There is a mutual action also, 
between the organic matter and the deutoxyde, by which the 
deuotosyde is changed to theprotoxyde. in this last change 
there is a step preparatory to its change into an acid, which it 
combines with lime and al&alies. These chemical changes 
are by no means improbabte: indeed, they are quite agreeable 
to what is known in analogous cases. 

Phosphate of lime is one of the most essential elements of 
soils. No living being, whether animal or vegetable. Is desti- 
tute of it. Bones, muscles, nerve, brain and blood, conlain 
it. Milk would be unsuited to the young or old if it was not 
rich in it. The quantity of food is always greater than Ihe 
system can take up. It becomes excremenlitious matters, 
and hence iheir value as fertilizcis. 



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23 

Lime and Magnesia are known in animal and vegetable 
structures. Potash is equally essential witli the phosphates- 
Soda is undoubtedly essential also, but perhaps less so than pot- 
ash ; at least it ia not so expensive, and can be supplied at a 
cheaper rate. Wafer is a solvent for a!! bodies which enter 
into the etruclure of plants. All matters must exist in soIk- 
iion before they can be received into the structure of plants or 
animals. There is no growth in the absence of water. It 
will be observed, that the most important elements exist in the 
smallest quantities. Hence it is, that they are liable to be re- 
moved in many states, and as they are not at all abundant in 
nature, they are expensive to supply. 

7. The two following are examples of good soils, whose 
elements exist at least in fair propoiliona, though (he organic 
matter is five times the amount usually present. They were 
taken from the plantation of Mr. Purnell, of Halifax County. 
The first is a dark brown soil ; the other a dark peaty soil : — 
both breaking into angular fragments when dried. 



1. Cultivated 


8'. Uncultivated 


Swamp Soil. 


Sivamp SSoil. 


Water, 4.27 


5.29 


Organic matter, 12.16 


10.30' 


Silex, 76.64 


78.72 


Alumina&peroxydeofii'on, 5.69 


3.78 


Lime, .12 


.17 


Magnesia, .6 





Soluble Silica, 1.13 


.36 


Potaiih, .08 


.20 



Phosphates appreciable in both samples. 

Soils of I e f g n descriptions are durable. Still, in 
process of h la ons of the elements are changed ; the 

organic ma ad Uy disappears ; and, with that change, 

the capac y f a n n water is diminished, and the more 
expensive I m n p! sjjhoric acid, potash, and soda, will 
have bee dale crops. 



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Wfieii any of the foie^'oing ?uilg wcic submitted to (he 
(ictioa of puie watei, they fuiniahed sohible sahs, consisDiij 
of sulphates aod chlojidea, m the pioportion ot 3.50 per cent. 
These salts aie pieiaent in all soila. Sulphur and chlorine 
also are essential constitueuia of oi§a<iized matter. 

A soi! fiom Mr. Bullock's plantation, near Tarboro', is 
another example of a soil in good' condition. JU contains 

Water, 4'.00' 



Organic matter, 


3.20 


ASuiaina and per oxyde of iron, 


5.60 


Silcx, 


86.80 


Lime, 


.S 


Magnesia, 


M 


Potaalj 


toce 


Plio^pliOUL, not testetl. 





'i'he deposits of the Roanoke, in Halifax Counly-j are 
sometimes use^ as feililizera, and they answer very wsll the 
end pioposed They may be regarded as having mainly the 
themical constitution contained in the following 



Water, 




5.784 


Organic nratter, 




8a60 


Silex, 




74.540 


Alumina and pe 


r oxydc of iron, 


10.560 


Liine, 




.848 


Magnesia, 




.360 


Soluble Silica, 




.038 


Potp.sh, 




.220 


Soda, 




.100 



The Roanoke brings down sediments of great value ; anc! 
liiey may be profitably employed in enriching adjacent fields. 
It is evident the upper country iswasted by its turbid branches; 
and it is very desirable that somei cheapo practicable means 
might be dcviBcd, by which its sediments may be diminished. 



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A deposic, or ecdiractit, of the Tar River, upon (he Panola 
plantatiotij does not differ materially from the Roanoke sedi- 
ments at Halifax. 

In this connection, 1 will introduce the composUion of a 
good wheat soil ; known to be good, by ohsetvation and yield 
of the crop. It is an example taken from the County of 
Perquimans, and from a field of 30 acres at least. The sur- 
face appearance is perfectly uniform, and so was the line 
waving crop^ as the wind played gently ovei' it. 

■ Water, 4.63 

Organic matter, 4.69 

Silex, 85.73 

Alumma and iron, 7.40 



Soluble Silica, .92 

Potash, .06 

Soda, .01 
Phosphoric acid appreciable in 200 grains. 

The soil is stifT, or of that character which is denominated 
argillaceous. This large field was remarkable for the uni- 
formity of the crop, both as to hbight and advancement ; and 
it is one of (be best examples of a good wheat soil in the 
Slate — equalling, in every respect, the soils of Genessee and 
Monroe Counties in New Yoik. This kind of soil, however, 
would not have been noticed here, if it had been confined to 
a single field. A large proportion of the couiity has this ex- 
cellent wheat soil. 

Another example of a good wheat soil is that of Mr. Crom- 
arty's, near Elizabeth, on the Cape Fear River. 

Water, 5.20 

Organic matter, 9.20 

Silex, 74.03 



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Per oxyde of in 


m an 


id Alumina, 10.40 


Lime,- 
Magnesia. 






.40 
.10 


PotKsh, 






.03 


So.ia 






trace. 


The phosphoric 


acid 


rem ail 


IS lo be detei'Biiaed. 



I proposed lo slale the composition of a good soil, a 
to general cultivation. The wheat soils which have been 
added to those thus regarded, will serve as an illustration of 
Uie eh'ght difference which is required to convert a good gen- 
ei'al soil inlo one adapted to, a specific use ; and this leads me 
to remark, Ihat it is not so much the chemical as (he physical 
conetilulion which produces the change. For (he addition of 
clay ia what makes the difference ; and I have already slated 
the fact that c!ay, or alumina, never enters into the consti- 
tution of a- plant or animal. It is never assimilated in the 
animal hody, though taken into the digestive organs ; and it 
is never taken up by liie roots of plants. 

As clay is regarded by some as a fertilizer — and, indeed, 
tliere can be no doubt of its good effects when applied to lands 
deficient in clay, — we may undereland the principle upon 
which il operates, it is, however, true, that it may cany with 
it potash, and other necessary elemenla of growth ; still wa 
should be slow to advise ils use on that principle ; inasmuch 
as they are usually m proporfions too small to jiistify the es- 
pense of haiding, < circumstances muse be very favorable lo 
make such a procedure profilable, except in cases ■ which will 
c«me up soon for consideration.' 

We have seen, in some of the foregoing examples of the 
composition of soils, that tliere are certain extremes — 1 mighi 
say anomalies, — in soils : they may consist of sand, with a 
trifle of organic matter ; and, when thus composed, they will 
produce something, if the sands aie fixed. As there ar* 
sandy soils at one estrerrie of the varieties, so there are peaty 
Boils, or really peals, at another. It has been generally sup- 
posed that the latter are unsuiled to cultivation, po- se ; and 



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in fad, this must be legarded as a fixed fact ; yet it ia sui*prig- 
iog how little jnorganic matter is required to convert the peaty, 
soils info highly productive ones. If a seed ia cast into a hed 
of pure peat, a hed purely organic, or even a mail bed, it 
soon sends forth its blade ; it grows for a short time, and then 
turns yellow and dies : it ia the last of the seed, and it fails to 
leproduce itself in the midst of a magazine of food. Thia 
fact is applicable to the kind of soils of which I am about to 



The State of North CaroLina owns large tracts of land, in 
the Eastern Counties bordering the coast, the soil of which ia 
eaninenily of vegetable origin. The tract which 1 am to 
notice-ia situated in the County of Carteret, and is known as 
the Open Ground Prairie, It ia within six or eight miles, 
North, of the town- of Beaufort, and contains over 80,000 
acres. In form it is an oblong, being about twice as long as 
broad, its longer axis extending E. N. E. On the S. E. 
side, several creeks penetrate into it ; or, rather, Core Sound 
sends into it three short arms, which are known as creeks. 
The 1st is Ward's Creek ; 2. Willis Creek ; 3. Oyater creek. 
At the extreme S. E, border is the North river j opposite to 
which, on the other side, is Adaitis Creek, and then South 
Hiver. The creeks and rivers are channels which render 
access to the Open Grounds more feasible ; for it should be 
known that nature has fortified these pounds by thickets of 
brambles. 

Around, and upon the outskirts of the Op€n Grounds, ars 
* ridges, which seem to have enclosed, at no very distant day, a 
bodyofwater, which was probably shallow and fresh, and com- 
municated with the Sound. By the special direction of His 
Excellency, the Governor, 1 visited this tract, mainly for the 
purpose of determining how far it is susceptible of reclamation 
and cultivation. In this enterprise I was aided very efflci- 
enlly, and indeed kindly, by gentlemen residing at Beaufort ; 
especially by Dr. Areudeli, Mr. Hellen, and Capt. Parrar. 

We gained acc^s lo ihe Prairie tlirough Ward's Creek, a 
hranch of the Ncrlh River. In our course we passed over 



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Piney Ridge, which has a breadth of oiie-foucth of a mile, and 
which has vegetable mould (o ibe depth of 3| feet, which 
reposes upon clay. Beyond this ridge is a zone called the 
EveigladeSj which are productive and rich. The soil is 
between ^ and 6 feet, and reposes upon a sandy clay , and in 
which there lies buried an ancient forest. Sounding at various 
points as we passed over the Everglades,, we found lotlomat 
various depths, varying from 3 to 10 feet, and' frequently 
the sound penetrated prostrate logs of considerable size. The 
BoundingB in the Open Piatrie were sufficiently niimerous to 
prove a great uniformity in the covering of an. ancient sea 
bottom, which, no doubt, was finally changed into a^fresh 
water lake or sound, which, by the progress of slight eleva- 
tions, from time to time,, raised the bottom above high water 
mark-. In consequence of these changes, vegetable.s- peculiar 
to marshy digtricta sprang up. These vegetables, especially 
the humble kinds, belong to the family of mosses, but consist 
mainly of a sphagnum. Trees also grew upon this bottom, 
particularly the- bay ; and they evidently attained a large size. 
But the moss growing lusurianlly, has finally raised the surface 
in some places 10 feet upon the sand. This I'enders the pre- 
sent surface less suitable for the growth of trees. The Opea 
Ground Prairie presents alevel surface, so far as can be seen, 
covered with an humble v^etation of sedge and moss, wilh 
here and there a sohtaiy pine. Surrounding, however, this 
extensive field,, there are lofty pines, interspei-sed wilh oaba 
and chincopin.. The soundings prove a field far more pro- 
ductive in trees than the present. This fact, taken by itself, 
looks favorably towards the soil which bore them. In gener- 
al, however, they were probably bays, and these are not indica- 
tive of good soil. The soil when brought up from the low- 
est points we could reach, was, to the eye, composed of vege- 
table matter, wilh some sandy soil . It was found loose towards 
the surface, at least to the depth of 18 or 20 inches. It is even a 
sponge, and holds, and retains water like a sponge. The train 
of argument which I was disposed lo adopt was, if this soil has 
been competent lo produce tree^ and perfect seed, capable of 



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teprodudingspecies, it maybe put under succeaafulcultar^provi- 
ded it is piitinto a favoiable physical condition. Still tkia argu- 
ment does not hold good. I w^is inclined to adopt it before 1 knew 
the exact chemical composition of the soil. It is fully establish- 
ed, as I have had occasion to say, that asoil, purely vegetable, 
will not produce the ceieals ; neither will one of pure sand 
or pure lime produce them. Organic matter is an essential con- 
stituent, as is sand and clay and limej and yet neither by itself 
can produce a ripe seed. Theremuslbea mixture of organis 
and inorganic matter. The laiter must also consist of sev- 
eral elements. These are important principles which may bs 
applied lo the question which was to be settled by this exam- 
ination. The characterstics of the vegetable material weie 
found uniform, and hence it did not require numerous analy- 
ses for to determine the nature of the soil. Hence, only four 
were taken for tliis purpose. 

These samples were taken from a depth of eighteen Oj 
twenty inches. The chemical examination of the specimens 
taken, resulted; uniformly, in this : One hundred grainsgave 
three per cent, only of inorganic matter, pioviug the almost 
total absence of any earthy co)|ipound — the three per cent, con- 
sisting of the ash of (he vegetable matter. This ash contain- 
ed si hca, phosphate of iime andperoxydeof iron, lime, mag- 
nesia and potash, or the same elements whicli are usually 
found in the ash of plants belonging to matches. A soil thus 
constituted is not susceptible of a profitable cultivation ; cer- 
tainly not competent to produce corn and other cereals, unlesa 
it be rice. The question then comes up, is there a reraedyl 
Can the Open Ground Prairie be bioughtinlo a condition to 
warrant an attempt at cultivation, for a reasonable expense? 
It is plain enough, that the first step is to lay the prairie or 
portions of it dry, by draining-. This is feasible, as it isprov- 
ed by a competent engineer, to be sixteen feet above high wa- 
ter, and to be also above the slorm tides of the coast. The 
first effect of draining will be to reduce Ihe Jevel of the prairie 
about eighteen inches. The surface, and, indeed, the whols 
bod , will becf me more compact and close, and the unchang- 



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■ed oi-gftnic matler will, in timej decompose. Another effect 
will be, to raise ttie temperature of tlie soil, which is now con- 
stantly below thai of ihe dry or drained fields. Both of these 
results will promote a vegetatioa of better kind ; but they can- 
not change mateiially the composition of the soil. There is 
still something more whicb must be done. The method 
which has hitherto been puraued with soils of this kind, is, to 
add quick lime only, under the impression (hat it promotes 
the speedy decomposition of t he vegetable matter, and con- 
verts it into an element for plants. This practice, however, 
is not founded upon just views : it is at least defective, and 
besides, it is too expensive. The trials, too, of this merliod, 
have failed; not because lime is injurious. It does not go far 
enough to add hrae, as thisisasingle element. No-a, it is pro- 
ved, I believe, that these soils are unproductive, for the want of 
inorgatiic raaltcr j oi', in other words, because the earthy 
bodies are absent; not because lime is absent more than the 
other earth, but because they are all absent. It follows, then, 
if the foregoing principles are true, that what is required, is 
Ihe addition of soil. Take any of the uncultivated soils, 
marsh mud and sand, ariylhingiof the kind at hand, which 
consists of earthy matter, and apply it as a dressing. Experi- 
ence proves that die quantity required is not large j that what 
planters call a heavy dressing, is sufficient. In using soil, 
instead of lime, as a fertilizer, there is added to the vegetable 
mould, tlie elements necessary for the production of the higher 
order of planls, the grains or cereals. Lime, magnesia, phos- 
phoricacid, alumina and iron, potash, soda, etc., are all in- 
corporated with the organic maliei, which, togelhei, constitute 
a good foundation for cultivation. This method 1 propose 
for treating those soils, which consist of nearly puie vegetable 
matter. Of its success^ I have no doubt. I legard this treat- 
ment as an exception to the usual rule, for I regard the prac- 
tice of hauling clay lo ameliorate a sandy soil, or the hauling 
of sand Lo ameliorate the clay, as generally too expensive. 
But in the case of peats and peaty soils, the vast quantity of 
fertilizing matter which they contain makes thp improvement 



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peimanent, or at least quite lasting : the peat containing in it- 
«elf lime, phosphate of lime, potash, soda, or those ele- 
ments which are essential to all plants. The pealy soils fur- 
nish many kinds or varieties, depending upon the amount of 
vegetable matter they contain. The Open Gionnds lie at the 
eslreme, inasmuch as they consist entirely of this matter ; es- 
pecially near the surfiice. An addition of earths makes the 
moat productive corn soils known. Some varieties of this soil 
I have examined. Of these, the two followin^are from 
Tyrrell county, taken from the new lands lying upon the 
Croatan sound : the adjacent ones being at least moderately 
prodiiii live. 

One hundred grains gave 7.30 per cent, of inoiganic mat- 
ter. This 7.30 consisted of 



Silex ot sand, 


6.03 


Lime, 


.02 


Phosphate of Hrae, alumioa and iron, 


..90 


PoMh, 


.20 


Soda, 


.06 



7.30 

The sitex obtained., consisted of rounded grains, and was 
evidently sea sand. Thepercenlageof organic matter is very 
large in this sample, but less than thai of the Open Praiiie. 
Still, this soil is productive for many years. 

The cuttii;ation of such soils, as the foregoing, results in the 
end, in the consumption of the vegetable matter ; it is slowly 
oxydated, or, in other words, burnt. T his chemical result, 
however, is essential to the growth of the plant. In process of 
time, BO much of the vegetable matter is consumed, that the 
eand begins to appear among (he vegetable matter; having be- 
come light, blows away and exposes more of the sand. At 
thisatage, the productiveness diminishes. The land is found 
to be benefitted, but slightly, if any, by barn-yard [^manures, 
imd it has become an important question, what shalLbedocej 



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or how shall ihe fertility of such soib be kept up. On this 
question, there is but little doubt what that method sliould be; 
it is to add common soil from the road side, or from adjacent 
hills, and from the most accessible points. It is to be under- 
stood that they do not require organic matter; there is enough 
of that ; and inoiganic matier furnishes the requisite quantity 
of phosphate of hmeand potash, byitschemicalchanges. In 
this condiiion, is a part of a laige field near Greeneville, in 
Pitt county, owned by Mr. Brown. It originally contained 
more inorganic matier than the soil from Tjrrell county ; but, 
in consequence of long cultivation, the sand begins to pre- 
dominate, and the vegetable matter blows away. Decom- 
posed slate rock would form the best application lo such fields; 
next to which clay and common soil or marl mis^d with 
earth. 

Closely allied to the foregoing peaty soils are the two fol- 
lowing: They were taken from the plantation of Captain 
Parrar, of Beaufort, Carteret county. No. I, I found com- 
posed of the following substances : 

Organic matter, 24.65 

Water, 6.75 

Sites, 55.37 

Alumina, 7.62 

Per oxyde of iron, 4.80. 

Lime, .40 

Magnesia, .29 

Potash, .09 

Soda, , .03 

The phosphoric acid was not determined. The soil was 
dried in the open air, and stili it retained 6.75 per ct. of wa- 
ter, showing its retenliveness when charged with organic mat- 
ter. 

The other sample of soil, marked No. 4, was composed of 

Organic matter, 24.94 

Silex, 58.34 



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Atiimina and pev oxyde of iron, 


10.49 


Lime, 


.21 


Wntef, 


4.47 


Magnesia, 


.15 



Soda, -05 

98.77 

Both soils weie taken from wet low grounds, recently re- 
claimed by ditching. They show the composition of good 
swamp lands, which, after reclamation by draining, will be- 
come the most valuable of all lands for corn. 

The amount of organic matter varies constantly, and we 
find a gradual approach to the common soils, ov those furnisli- 
\ag from three to six per cent, of organic matter. The two 
following are of an intermediate variety. They were taken 
from the plantation near Halifax. The first has been imder 
culture for a long time. 

Organic matter, 14.14 

Water, 4.27 

Silex, 78.64 

Alumina, 1.69 

Per oxyde of iron, 1 .40 

Lime, .12 

Magnesia, ,10 

Potash, .03 



The last is a dark brown soil, breaking into angular frag- 
ments or Inmps after drying it. It is composed of 

Water, 4.58 

Organic matter, 12.00 

Silex, 77.02 



HctecbyClOOgle 



Alumina, 4,25 

Lime, ,]8 

Magnesia, tince 

Potash, .Oe 

98.69 

Phosphoric acid undetermined. 

Upon Ihe Cape Fear River, I examined many localities 
where the soil would not differ from ihe two last. Among 
them should be ranked a lar^e tract of land owned by Mr. 
E, M. McDoweif. The soil alluded to has been partially 
drained, and put in part under culture. The organic 
mailer varies from 12 to 24 per cent. It ranks among the 
best lantlson the south side of the Cape Pear. 

Where oi'ganic mailer abounds, the soil is dark colored, and 
it requiiea no analysis fo determine the fact. It will be ob- 
served by many, that there is no determination or separation 
of the coarse from the line matters. The fact ie, (he soils 
consist enliiely of fine matter j it is frequently too fine : but 
fine materials are better than coasre, inasmuch as a coarse 
gravel, destitute of fine maUer, is nearly barren, but a quanti- 
ty of coarse with the fine improves the mechanical condition. 

It may be interesting to give the analysis of two fertile soils, 
which cover a large portion of Souihern Russia, and which 
stretch into Hungary. It is a vegetable mould, not much 
unlike some of those soils the composition of which has been 
given,* 



Siiod, 


52.77 


61.84 


Silica, 


18.65 


17.80 


AiiiniiQa, 


8.85 


8.90 


Oxydeofimn, 5.33 


5.47 


Lime, 


1.13 


.87 


Magnesia, 


.OflT 


.00 


• Boolh'i 


s Geological Report of Delaware, p. 137. 






Hosleob,COOg|( 



Water, 


4.91 


4.98 


f hosphoitc acid, 


0.46 


.46 


■Organic jHaUer, 


7.95 


10.33 Hermamt. 



The insoluble matter m this analysis 71.42. 

If this soil is isk'-M as the standard for comparisoa with 
«ther soils, it should be observed that the ^tiaatky of alumina 
land iron iiaight be dirainiahed without impairing its fertility ; 
.and the qnantily of insoluble matter also dirainished oria. 
creased, without infliienciHg its properties essentially :, that iSj 
at may contain 3 or 4 per cent, of silica, or Jess, and no per- 
ceptible change would follow from eithea'. The qiianlily of 
Jime is large, if compared with any soil in this country, unless 
we select a local one, rediiliing frem (he disintegialion of 
^ limestone rock, or one composed of marl. 

1 may lake this opportunity (o remark, that we feare oe 
soils which can be called calcareous, or which are strictly eti- 
aiiled to that denomination. If we may appea.1 to ohseriratioa 
and experiment, it is established that a small per centage of 
lime, only, is necessaiy to the highest degree of ferliliiy ; and 
yet this sraail percentage is necessary, if there is present 
«ne-half of one per cent, it seems to be sufficient ; for it ia 
ffare to find a larger quantity in prociuciive soils. 

8. I have not yet examined the marshy lands of (he East- 
ern Counties, adjacent tG the sea, sounds, and rivers, as I 
design. I4iegard them, however, as among the moat fertile 
and valuable lands of tlje State. It is upon these low bottoms, 
where the sluggish streams are partially dammed and obstruct- 
ed by brush and logs, that the overflow of watej-s, bearing 
more or less efaedimeiH> that acctimiilation of arganic mat- 
ter, takes i^ace. 

Centuries, however, haveclajKed since this .process began; 
»nd though the baltoms are composed of more sand than clay, 
still, they have aocumflAlated firom three (o ten feel of vege- 
table matter ; which, by the operation of chemical and phy- 
sical causes, is being convened into the most productive of 
isoils. In soniti aitalances, weJiave seen, as in ihe Open ^rai- 



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riea of Cavteret, a growth of vegetable matter, insleosi of a 
deposit, as sediment ; in olhera,— as in lands which are 
overflowed during the wet seasons of the v^af — ti mixture of 
both ; or growih commingled wirh sedimenlB. Tlie best 
lands are (he latter — where a sod, with a magazine of food 
for jilanie, has accumidated, that natuie has made the best 
provision fw the ptanier. Notwiihsiynding a bountiful soil is 
thus made, still it should not be forgotten ihai il can be ex- 
hausted. The lime, however, la so for ahead, that it seeraa 
almost needless to express our feais and caution lo the pro- 
prietms of such lands. But yet the f.'rtiie lands of the West, 
which appeared to the early eetders as inexhaustible, are 
found now to have diminished in the bnrilien of their crops, 
and to require the applicaliou of fertilizers to bring them up 
to ibeir origmal fertility. 

9. The imporlanw which i have given to the elements of 
soil:!, and the emphasis with which 1 have inculcated ibeir 
several useSj may lead ipy readera to infer that it is sufficient to 
supply them, in order to secure large returns. I am, therefore, 
inclined to correct any misapprehension of this kind, by sla- 
ting somewhat in detail, the mechanical or physical proper- 
lies which soils should possess, in order to insure their 
fertility. 

1. Pine and coarse matehials. — Aproduciivesoil has 
usually a due admixture of coarse and fine materials. When 
il is all coarse, it is so porous Ihat water passes ihrotigh il loo 
rjipidly. A m icl H g r qua v of feriihzing ia required, 
and u large propori o -^ lost Giivels have been called hun- 
gry because thty co a me o raucl n anure i besides, there 
is little if any oppo tui ty for c ei cal action. We must not 
lose sight of tl e cl a « cal forces Coarse materials cannot 
act upon each othu. 

2. The other extkeme.— A very fine soil has defects al- 
most equally great : when impalpable, it bordf^rs upon barren- 
ness. The disadvantages of a fine soil are, water finds its 
way too slowly through it ; it intercepts the free passage of air, 



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37 

or, in olhcr words, it is defective in ils apparatus of cirenla. 
don,and obstriicis the growih of roots. If a seed is closely 
compacted in day, it may be preserved for an iadefinite liine_ 
For gcrmiQaiion, ail, moisture and heat are each necessary. 
In an impalpable soil, air is excluded. MEinures applied to 
close soila or fine compact ones, are deprived of the air they 
require to fit them to act as food for the jdant. 

Taking the two extremes and comparing them together, we 
fihd the formerconsiime manures, while I he latler retain (hem 
unchanged i the first permit a rapid passage through ihera; 
the lader, the passage is obstructed and water is not allowed to 
enter. The impalpable and close soils are -composed gener- 
ally of clay ; it is soraelimes a pot clay. As a soil, it is dffi- 
cuU to work : moreover, it is more difficult to secure the prop- 
er time for working it. In the Spring, it is too wet for a time, 
bit it is slowly drying, and in process of time it will be in the 
best state for working, but it soon passes from a state of wet 
to one in which it is too dry. If worked when wet, it is inju- 
red for the whole season : indeed, it may be regarded as lost 
for the year, if itis plowed in a stale when it is quite wet. But, 
if loo dry, it is hard and lumpy. To cultivaie such soils suc- 
cessftilly, their coKstitulions must be well underslood. 

Ordinaty clay soils may be managed by draining and the 
free use of lime. The forwiwduess in Spring of a wet clay 
soil, is a gain of two weeks by draining, and i diminution of 
©ne-fourth of the labor in tillage, and an increase of crop 
equal to one-half, and a total removal of the uncertainty in 
the lime of plowing. The use of Ume breaks it up, and im- 
piu'ls porosity and letsinair,moistur£, and the free peuelratioinof 
roofs. The light colored claj-s are not so kind us fhe drab or 
yellowy fhe white are lessprodiitlive. The common express- 
ion is, they are cold, and it may be cited as one instance, where 
R common expression is Ulerally correct, for colored-soilsatoorb 
oiore heat than white ones; iheir lemferature is aijsolulely 
higher. The coloiing matter, which is iron, diminishes ilie 
cohesion of clays .; the colored ones are therefore less couMpact 
and far^More productiv*. 



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From the foregoing remitrks, it follows that the best soil's 
aie composed of both coarse and fine malerials — coaree, tha' 
the air and moisture^may penetrate them — fine, that chemical 
action and solution' may be promoted, and the feptitiaing mat- 
ter retained. Oyster and clam shells are useful', even if un- 
changed, by promoting and preserving porosity in the midst o' 
finely divided matter. The principles laid down are practi- 
cal and easy of application, provided acenrate observations' 
are first made. 

10. The mechanical properties of sand are directly oppo- 
sile lo those of clay. Bus I need not add to this head as it is 
too well known lo require additional comment. There is a 
practice which should be recommended in cultivating sandy 
acil ; it is to pass the heavy roller over them when moist. Seed 
■sown upon the surface and then/rolled, ensures its germma- 
tion ; if neglected, it is likely to fail. Lig[ht dpifting sanii 
may befixed bythersJler.* The comparative value of clayey 
and sandy aoits have not been satisfactorily settled. The ex- 
pense of working the former is always greater than that of the' 
latter,, but greater crops are usually oblained. Sandy soil* 
bave not stood bo high as they deserve. Their easy tillage and 
middling crops, which may be oblained for a succession of 
years, pay well.. They stand drouths better than clay soils,, 
and admit of early tillage. A plantation la more valuable if 
it has both varieties of soil. 

There are some facts, which go lo show that argillaceous soils 
possess an affinity, if it may he so called, for ammonia, supe- 
fioE lo a sandy soil. If so, it is one reason why argiliaceou* 
soils are belter adapted to wheat than sandy, though not the 
only reason. The ftict that clay absorbs ammonia, and re- 
cjm'rfei a strong heat to set it free, is an important a^cultuiaf 
feet, fn order to make the moat of the absorbative power of 
argillaceous and other soils, fresh surfaces should be made by 

Note. — The effect of the rolleF is confined to the iuiface. 
It does not press together the material below, which has been 
loosened by the plow. Soils then are not eompacteii by it j; 
it iioes not destroy theefieet of the plough. 



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ploughing', harrowing, or hoeing. New and fiesh surfaceg 
are much more efficient absorbers of ammonia than those 
which have remained unstirred lor weeks. The hite Professor 
Eaton waa in the hnbit of illusimtin^ this fact, and applying 
it to agricuhure, by inserting fresh earlK beneath a receiver filled 
with ammonia. The absorption took place almost instantly. 
The application of (his fact to agriculture, was made aa long 
ago as 1820. One of the advantages of ploughing and hoe- 
ing was attributed (o the increased power of absorption of 
ammonia from the atmosphere, by the new surface thus made 
and exposed. 

There seems to have been a special provision for furnishing 
a supply of ammonia, from which nitrogenous matters 
in grain are derived, and although ammonia forms an incon- 
siderable part of the atmosphere, yet bodies of various kinos 
absoib it with Ihe greatest avidity, and in such qiiantites that 
it may be detected by chemical tests. I have already spoken 
of ammonia, (§ 3.) and have there suggested that the natural 
supply is adequate to the natural wants of the vegetable, and 
that for the purpose merely of preserving and sustaining all 
the species of plants now upon the earth, the atmospheric sup- 
ply is sufficient. Even a luxuriant vegetation is sustained, 
and may be for an indefinite period, where herbage is mainly 
the product ; yet, when the large products of grain are drawn 
from the soil, then the natural supply is insufficient, and the 
farmer is obliged to resort to artificial supplies. 



MEANING OF THE WORD, IMPROVEMENT.— 
COMPOSITION OF SHELL MARL, &,€. 

§11. The soils o! the easlern counties, it has been seen, 
furnish several distinct varieties, some of which lie at the 
extremes. The original constitution, which is sandy, 
aided by long cultivation, without due attention to the ap- 
plication of manures, has brough them to a condition, iti 



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many instances, of extreme poverty ; and hence, it has be- 
come a question of great importance, how ihey shall be 
restored in a measure to their original iertility. This is 
not the only question, however, respecting the soils oS the 
lower counties — how they shall be restored. Another comes 
up oi' equal if not greater importance, viz : IIow are the 
soils, which nre now in a good condition, to be prevented 
from becoming poor and exhausted, and yet be subject to 
cultivation? Although we have presented two questions, 
yet, if either is answered, the other is also in the main ; for 
the same principles are applicable to the Iwo cases. The 
questions are not, how shall the crops be increased, for 
methods are at hand fordoing ihis, without a permanent 
improvement of the soil. The crops of a plantation may 
be greatly increased by deep ploughing, and yet the soil is 
not virtually and essentially improved- Many are making 
a mistake in this respect. So, the system of clovering, or 
the use of green crops, might be followed out on a system 
combined with sin alteration of crops. This, too, has been 
regarded as an improvement ol the soil ; yet, it is not so, 
unless, indeed, it is accompanied with such additions of 
inorganic matter, which the toil require, and which are 
removed in the crops. Thecrops may he greatly increased 
wiliiout an improvement of the soil, and planlers cannot 
learn this fact too soon, i do not object to the plan of 
increasing the crops ior the seasons, by deep ploughing, 
snbsoilin^, and the use of green crops; but each and all, 
by themselves, cannot be regarded as an improvement of 
the soil There is something more, and it consists in the 
application, along with deep ploughing, subsoiling, and 
green crops, of all the elements which fertilize, and are 
necessary to supply the losses in the removed elements ;and 
it is only by pursuing this method that the spirit of the 
word Improvement will be realized. 

In one sense, it is true, that any system, which adds a 
stock of essentia! elements to a soil, is an improvement; 
thus, l>y the use of green crops, or clover, or peas, we ob- 



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41 

tain Iroin ihe aimosphere organic matter in the plants, 
which isploughed in, and added to the soil. If the cnlli- 
vaiion, however, goes on, this new accession ot organic 
matler shortens the lime during which the inorganic mat- 
ter will last ; for more of the latter is used in the increased 
crops. Tliere must bo preserved a balance between the two 
kinds of matter : if, for example, there is too much organic 
matter in the straw of wheat, as there frequently is, when 
cultivated on new grounds, it is weak and fulls down ; or 
else, there is an excessive development of the herbaceous 
pari, and but little grain or seed. 

But I shall leave this question to take care of itself for 
the present: it is time to speak of the real sonrces of im- 
provement in the soils, as lound in the lower counties: 

The first substance reqnii'ina; attention, is marl, a term 
which was originally applied to substances, which coiisia. 
led ill part of carbonate of lime; but, as oftener used, it 
includes calcareous clays, with or without shells, and 
argillaceous matters, containing silica, iron and potash, and 
probably, phosphate of lime, bui destitute of carbonate of 
lime. The former are the marly clays, and shell marl — the 
calcareous matter is in the form of a carbonaie ; the latter 
is the green sand, and contains potash, as its principal 
fertilizer, (hough it is now rendered highly probable ihat 
phosphate of lime is always present, and active in produc- 
ing tile results which follow from its use. In the green 
sand, however, there is no carbonate of iime, or but a trace, 
and hence, it may be better never to apply the term marl 
to the green sand, as it is so different in composition from 
the true marls, and so different in ifi geological position 
and age. But both are found in the part of ihe State of 
which I am speaking, one or the other being found in beds 
from Currituck to Brunswick, ami from Wake to Carte- 
ret. The beds are not conrirmed over very hira;e areas: 
the green sands, however, are less isolated and more con- 
tinuous ihan the shell marl beds. 



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42 

12. The vijaleriiils which are employed on ihe Atlantic 
slope, in 'Virginia, Nnnli and South Carolina, and other 
States still farther South, belong to two great sections or 
systems of rocks. The superior is the tertiary ; the in- 
(erior system the crelaoeous, occupying, in the Jntler, tiie 
lowest position in the system. It is thni pait known as the 
green sand, Irom the circnmsiance, thai the beds are green 
or greenish, from the presence of numerous grains of sili- 
cate of iron and potash. 

I propose to describe the first or tertiary beds. These, 
so far as my observation exieods, are always isolated, or 
confined comparatively within narrow limits. They are 
not spread out so as lo form a cuniinuous bed ; but limited 
usually lo a few acres, perhaps many acres, and complete- 
ly disconnected or separated from other beds. Tills view 
of them is important, inasmuch as it does not follow, that, 
because a bed appears in a branch, on one sidt of the plan- 
tation, that it will be found on the other side of it, though 
very desirable that it should. Some beds are confined to 
an area of an acre. Some are but a tew rods square, and 
others are still smaller, and appear like nests of shells in the 
midst of sands. The beds of oysters and clams are, indeed, 
good representatives of marl beds, as to extent : some larger, 
others sniailer. If we examine the bed or floor of the 
ocean, by soundings, we shall find it composed of materials, 
especially along the coast, very much the same; but its 
surface is not evenly spread out. In some places it is 
smooth and level ; in others, it rises in ridges and hills, with 
their vallies. This disposition of the materials, forming 
the ocean's bottom, provide;, if it may be so called, a va- 
riety of climates — some adapted to the wants of living 
beings ; others incomp.itible with life. Some are sheltered, 
and others are exposed to the lashing of the waves. It is 
in these sheitered abodes that we find life in its various 
conditions and stages of development. While upon shores 
and in soundings, where the waves and the elements are at 
strife, life is absent, from its exposures. So, when the 



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beings wliose remains constitute niid form these marl beda, 
peopled tile waters, (here were sheltered places, quiet and 
stil! bays, which favored ihe devefopmenl of life, and it is 
upon such areas that these- deposits were made, while 
other areas, exposed lo sudden changes, sepaiated ihose, 
teeming with hfe, from each other. We have reason to 
infer, then, from observations upon the ocean's bottom, that 
the areas of the marl beds would not be found spread out 
coiilinuousljr ; though marl beds, possessing characters in 
common, furnishing the same kinds of shells, will occur at 
wide and distant points. Not only, too, are the beds 
characterized by similarity of forms and kinds, but the 
accompanying sediments, sediments of the same mineral 
character, would be found with ihem. This would be 
necessary: it is one of the provisions of life — the medium 
which conveys their food and the habits and habitants 
must and should agree. 

13. We reiison, then, from life to things, and things to 
life. Wherever Ihe conditions for the life of the clam and 
oyster were favorable, or, to be more generai, where the 
candilions of life were favorable to a larger number of 
Molusca, there they would be congregated, because this 
food, the climate and all, would conspire to favor develop- 
ment and growlh. Similarity ol organic forms, then, be- 
come indicative of the value of marl deposits, over wide 
and extended areas. Marls which contain similar shells 
will be founii to possess nearly Ihe same agricultural value. 

14. The marls are distinguished by different names in 
the vicinity where they occur. The red, blue, and shell 
marl are names applied to beds occupying the same geo- 
logical positions. Sometimes there are some differences 
in their properties and value. The red marl owes its color 
10 a change in the oxyde of iron mingled wilh the shells. 
It has changed from a state of proloxyde to the peroxyde. 
It is due to exposure to the atmosphere, and is tisu- 
ally the superior part of the b-^d which has under. 



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44 

gone this change. The blue marl still holds the iron in 
a state of protoxyde, ivhich imparts a bluish green color to 
the ffiass. The lerrn blue inarl, however, is frequently 
given to. the green snnd, an in''erior and older formation, 
and which owes its fertilizing properties to potash, iis I 
have already had occasion to say. We might make a dis' 
tinctioii between the sandy marls and the argillaceous. In 
the first, sand predominates : in the other, a bluish cluy. 
Both effervesce with acids ; — the latter is the most valua- 
ble. The proportion of carbonate of Hme is variable; or. 
what would amount to the same thing, the amount of sand 
is variable in the same bed, and in the distant beds which 
occupy the same position; though to the lime is due the 
existence of 'he aninia! which inhaijiled the shells. 

§ 15. The marls of Cape Fear river furnish alt the va- 
rieties which have been noticed in the foregoing paragraphs. 
The first beds which appear, upon the river, are about ten 
miles above Elizabeth, in Bladen County. 

Mr. Lassaine's, which is the highest point visited from 
Elizabeth, is sandy ; Mr, Gillespie's is argillaceous ; and 
Mr, Cromarty's is more calcareous, and parts of it are ce- 
mented together. It is a mass of shells, and has been 
found, by experience, a valuable fertilizer. It isseven 
feet thick, and underlies many acres. 

Mr. Cromarty's marl yields 



Silex, 




62,50 


Alumina, phosphate of liin 


le and iron, 


715 


Carbonate of lime. 




40-50 


Mas: tie si a, 




.75 


Potash and soda 




trnc€ 



lOfl 90 

§16. The quantity of marl containing (he percentage 
of lime given above, requires, per acre, fur soils not re- 
markably sandy, about 2{t0 bushels. 'J'he experience o** 



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45 

planters is. that very poor soils are injured for a year or 
more by the application of marl, except in small quanlitlea. 
One hiiadred bushels is regarded as sufficient for sandy 
exhausted lands When two or three hundred has be.en 
used per acre, the land is said to be burnt, or the vegetation 
. is, in part, destroyed ; and the practice is to bet;in with the 
lowest quantity, and proceed in marling by stilisequent ad. 
dilions ; being goverred by the qnaniity of organic matter 
resiored to the soil. Many planttis have observed that 
heavy marling is injurious to poor lands, who do not at- 
tempt to give a reason for ihe stalemenl. If the common 
opinion respecting the danger of applying loo much marl 
to poor^oils is founded on correct principks; or if there 
are lands upon which it would be h^izardous lo apply ii in 
large quantities at first, we may be assured that it will he 
safe, always, provided it is mixed with much org-anic mat- 
ter. The prior mixture and incorporation of the materials 
with leaves, bark, decayed wood, rich !oam, peat, tfcc. 
obviates ihe objection raised. The practice in New Jersey 
is regarded hs the best: — namely, (ho prior mixing of marl 
and vegetables. It is true (hat the .lerseymart is destitute 
of lime. Probably the great danger of bringing the use of 
mail into disrepute, by representing its injurious effects 
upon poor soils, has more frequently arisen from loo high 
expectation of receiving great effects the firs^ season that 
it is applied :— whereas, the better and safer course is lo 
brin^ the land back gradually lo a good standard of fertility ; 
pursuing that course which is caicidated lo increase the 
vegetable matter in ihe soil for several successive seasons. 
A plan like the following is deserving of trial; Spre.id 
upon an acre sevenly-iiwe bushels of the fifty per cent, 
marl, and put it down in peas. When in blossom, plough 
in the crop, and sow rye or millet for the succeedin" crop. 
The land will have gained a sufficient amount of organic 
or vegetable matter to admit of the use of one liundred 
and fifty or two hundred busliels at the next marling tiine. 
Some land wiil reqiare the loss of twc crops, perhaps, be- 



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46 

fore they can be trealed with a Iresh dose af mavl. The 
doctrine to be inculcated is, to exercise patience with light 
nnd worn oiU soils, and not expect loo much at first, when ■ 
the first step towards their fertilization is taken. When 
the worli has been properly conducted, the pliinler may 
regard such lands as so niHch added to his possessions, of 
durable and pvociictive fields. 

Abundance of iho' shelly mnri lies in the banit about one 
iialfamile, jirobably less, below Hlizabelh, It forms a 
stratnfri from two to three feet thick, in the bank upon the 
south side of the river, Coprolites and teeth of fish are 
commori. The latter are mixfd In the bed with the shells, 
more or less. Both teeth and coproiiles lie at ^he hotlom 
of the siiucJure, iniermised wiili some bones, and rounded 
pebbles of quartz. This layer at (he b"lloni, intermixed 
with pebbles and rolled coprolites, is an interesting fealure 
of the bed. I have been in hopes that in this position, in 
some favored place, coprolites, in sufficient quantityj might 
be discovered, to pay ,ihe expense o( extracting them sepa- 
rately. They possess a composition superior to bones, and 
may be used for the same purposes as bones. 

The following results of an analysis represent, in the 
main, their composition : — 

Silica, 9 f>8 

Phosphate of lime, 71.59 

Carbonate of hme, 11.28 

Magnesia, .50 

Polash, a trace 

Organic matter and water, 4.40 

97.35 

The coprolites of this bed are all bl«efc, or dark brown. 
They are qniie hard, and may easily be mistaken for the 
dark pebbles of quartz, with which ihey are asaocialed. 
They are generally broken, and are rounded; but some 
retain their original spiral form. Th^y are two and a half 
to three lEiches long, and three-fourths of an inch in 
diameter. 



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47 

§17 Below Elizabeth inEladen cnunty,lhein.arlscoiitiTiue 
to be exposed at intervula. One of these exposures is Wal- 
ker's bluff nine miles below bllizabeth. It is the highest 
upon the river. It presents a sleep escarpment, which 
consists of liifTerent colored sands, with a thick layer of 
shelly marl. The marl is also more or less sandy. 
Eighteen miles below Elizabeth, the bhiffs appear upon the 
river, with their strata of sands and marls. The strata are 
also well exposed at. Mr, Robinson's plantation, one mile 
above Ml. Brown's landing, The following strata appear 
in the banks at Robinson's, beginning at the lop : I, twenty 
feet of d'fferent colored sands, some yellow, brown imd 
ivhite; 2, twenty feet of oliie marl, more or less sandy, .Hid 
calcareous at (he bottom ; 3, n single layer ol blue coinjjMct 
clay, 8 inches ; 4, sand ; 5, yellow and brown sands : 6, 
blue marl, containing a single species of ostrea. iVlost of 
this stratum is below water, and hence its thickness is not 
determinable by inspection. The mart !;ed is very thick, 
but contains considerable sand in its superior part; yei it is 
found a valuable fertilizer. 

The marl stratum, al Brown's landing, is three feetthick, 
and contains many shells and much green sand, in grains, 
and seems to have derived its materials from the green 
sandof the cretaceous formation below. At Mr. McDow- 
ell's, the green or blue marl appears in a low bank, one 
mile from the river. Also, on the plaiilnfion of Messrs 
Andrews, These beds are peculiar in their geological re- 
lations, and merit a easeful examinaiinn. 

Ten miles below Mr. Brown's landing, at Black Uock, the 
shell marl appears ifi the bank, but is quite sandy, and ap- 
pears as if ibis stratum is discontinued, and ceases at or near 
this place. It is scarcely more than onefoot in ihicltness. 
Immediately below it, the green sand is well developed, and 
it is well characterized by its fossils. 

On the road from Brown's landing, to Black Hock, beds 
of marl appear, which are evidenlly isolated. The facts all 
go to show that the strata of shell marl never form very ex- 



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tensive beds: even that so conspicuous at Walker's bluff, 
disappears suddenly, and its place is taken by the different 
collared sands, 

il8. The strata of marl,which I have Ihus far spoken cf, are 
composed of many kinds of maleriala, intermixed irregular- 
ly with each other. They possess many fossils in common, 
bui often rare kinds are f<iund, in one or more of the beds, 
which is not generally disiribuled. But again, there are 
many places where the oyster shell is the principal one, 
and which, iasread ot crumbling in llie hand, and by its 
own weight, are firm and nearly as sonnd as those now 
living upon their beds. The value of oysters, in !his con- 
diiion, is (ar less for immediate use, than those which are 
decomposed : indeed, for spreadititr up"n the soil, the prin- 
cipil eH'ect must be mechanical. If, however, five hundred 
bushels were used per ucre. good effects mighi be expect- 
ed; for there is a slow disintegration, and there is a slow 
solvent action, also, by which lime will be given to ihe 
soil. Of this character, are those shell banks immediately 
upon the const. These, though they have been exposed to 
atmospheric agencies for a much less lime than those in 
the inHrior, are nevertheless, farther advanced inthe pro- 
cess of dec;iy 'i he best method of employing ihe imde- 
coinposed shells, will be lo bnrn ihem; use ihe quick !ime, 
or after it has passed into a sub-canstic state. 

J 19 The Neuse valley is deei>er and lower than ih^ 
Cape Fear, and hence it furnishes a larger supply of Mar! 
beds. The Chapony Hills have heen known for a quarter 
ol a century, to be rich in marls of different kinds 'j'he 
vicinity of Goldsboro,' however, possesses most distinctly 
the characters of those upon Cape Fear. The beds which 
are hesl known are upon the plantation oi Messrs. Scott, 
-Ham and Peacock. The beds are identical in age and po- 
sition, and belong the middle tertiary; they are from 
twelve to fifteen feet thick. These shells are embedded 'n 
a green marly clay, which eifervesces with acids. Mr. 



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Ham's marl is filled with small shells, which, have so far 
decayed that it is difficult to find one entire. The cover- 
ing to the difi'ereiit beds is quite varied. Mr. Ham'-'s has 
three feet of peat, which is probably the best substance, 
considered economically, which could have been placed 
there ; Jt is the very materia! wanted to secure the best ef- 
fects of ihe marl, and to form with it a compost. It is not 
determined what strata lies below these beds, occupying, as 
ihey do, grounds which are low and depressed. The marl 
of Mr. Ham's may be regarded as composed of — 

Hand or Silex, 45.00 
Phosphate of lime, per oxjde of 

iron and alumina, 8.35 

Carbonate of lime, 44.15 

Wafer and organic matter, 1.60 

The marls, previous to analysis, have become dry by ex- 
posure to ihe air. Some moisture and organic matter re- 
mains, varying from one to three and four per cent. The 
sand is always greater than appears from simple mspection, 
and it usually consists of fine grains of pure quartz. There 
is also, one-half ofone per cent.ofsoluble silica, which is usu- 
ally omitted, 

^ 19. It will be observed, that in making up a statement 
of the analysis, I place the ammoniacal precipitate, Ihe oxyde 
of iron and alumina, under the head of phosphate of lime, 
instead of placing it in analysis under the head of alumi- 
na and per oxyde of iron. I have done this, because this 
precipitate consists mainly of phosphates, though the exact 
amount of phosphoric acid has not been fixed with accura- 
cy ; yet, one-fourth of a grain of it gives a strong rendition 
of phosphoric acid with molybdate of ammonia, 

On the banks of the Sarpony hills, on Mr. Griswold's 
plantation, marl of an excellent quality, and in great nbun- 



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50 

dalice, exists. The beds, however, are indurated, or have 
passed into that condiUoa which is known as stone marl. 
The following is a correct description of a section of a 
slope or bank, where ezcavalioos have been made for pro- 
ciinnglimsstone ; beginaing at the water's edge : 

1, Stratum of marl extending beneath the water of the 
Neuse, in a soft condition. 

2, Consolidated marl. 

3, Sandy marl. 

4. Granular and partially indurated marl. 

5. Stone marl fifteen feet thick, and which has been 
used for lime. 

6. Sand. 

The whole bank has a thickness of thirty or thirty-five 
feet. It is one of the best locations on the river for the 
manufacture of lime for agricultural purposes^ and it is not 
a little remarkable, that property, which might have been 
very valuable, and at the same time usefn!, toa whole com- 
munity, has been lying useless and unproductive. 

§ 20. At the Sarpony Bliilf, ihe formation, presents an 
interesting section to the Geologist. It would be expected 
that the marl would appear here, as at Walker's Bluff, on 
the Cape Fear; inasmuch as the height and formations do 
not materially differ. The Sarpony Bluff is between 75 
and 80 feet high, and consists of the following strata : 

1. Sand extending beneath the water, 4 feet. 

2. Band of pebbles and sand, cemented by iron, with 

casts of obscure vegetable stems, five feet. 

3. Gray sand, thirty ieet. 

4. Ferruginous band, eight feet, 

5. Light colored ferruginous layer. 

6. Copperas beds, consisting of pyrites, clay and vege- 

table matter, nearly black. It is properly a bed of 
lignite, charged with pyrites. 



abyCOOglC 



7. Sand, twenty-five feet. 

8. Earth, sand, &c. compacted together. 

These beds, it will be observed, are mostly ferruginous, 
or those which are highly charged with the oxyde of iron ; 
and it should be observed, that, whijre iron is thus in ex- 
cess, the beds do not furnish animal remains, or marl beds. 
Fossils are rarely distributed in them ; — sulphuret of iron is 
■ usually the source of the oxyde, in beds of this description, 
and, in decomposing, forms an astringent salt of protosul- 
phate of iron or copperas. The marl of Griswold's plan- 
tation thins out before it reaches this high bluff ; a change 
which occurs also on the Caps Fear, where the marl sud- 
denly disappears, being replaced by sand. 

5 21. The vicinity of Newbern has long been known as 
abounding in mail. New beds a(e frequently brought to 
light by accident, and sometimes by careful exploration of 
favorable places. Judge Donnell, during the past year, has 
discovered shelly marl upon an old plantation ;— proving 
that most ptaotations, which are elevated considerably above . 
the river, are not destitute of this fertilizer. 

^ 22. The Tau river, in its banlis and branches, is rich 
in marls of the age of the middle tertiary, adopting the 
views of the Geologists who have examined, with some 
care, the fossils peculiar to these beds. 

§ 33, Beginning in Nash County, five or six miles above 
Rocky Mount, we find the shelly marl at intervals as far 
down as Washington. 

The first I shall notice is from Mr. McDaniel's, 5 or 6 
miles above Rocky Mount. This mad, like many olher 
kinds whose quality is equal lo the average, is inore or less 
eonsoHdated, and breaks up into masses. Thin lamince 
at coal, or lignite, are mixed with the shells — a fact which 
indicates that the source of the earthy materia! was in the 



abyClOOgle 



52 

coal formation, in part. This marl is regarded as consist- 
ing of ihe two kinds; — ihe brown or red, and tfie blue, 
Practically, I thinli it well to Iteep up this distinction ;.for 
tlie red, tlius far, iias given better results in analysis than 
t]ie blue. I do not linow what opinions are entertained by 
planters of their comparative value, who use both kinds. 

The analysis of two specimens of this marl gives very 
good results for the red variety : 

Siles, or sand, 16.25 

Phosphate of lime and per oxydeof iron, lO.OO 
Carbonate of lime, 71.75 

Organic matter ao'd water, 2.15 

100.15 
The magnesia and potash were not sought for. 
The appearance of this marl is quite unpromising, as it 

is quite bumpy and hard, passing into .an indurated mavl. 

Still, analysis shows it to be an excellent kind, and which, 

I am confident, would' yield 7 or 8 per cent, of phosphates,. 

over and above the alumina. ' , . 

The blue marl which is found below, gives a good 

analysis, but contains less lime : 

Sand, or silex, 21 ,25 

Phosphate of lime, and per osyde of 

iron and alumina, lO-OO 

Carbonate of lime, 64.65 

Organic matter and water, 2.10 

98.00 

These marls, when tested, have always furnished a small 
quantity of magnesia, and a trace, and sometimes a welgh- 
able quantity, of potash. The two samples furnish tha 
same amount of the phosphates, and oxydeof iron. The 
color of the ammoniacal precipitate is darker in the red, 
than in the green variety, indicating a larger quantity of the 
oxyde of iron. 

Hostea by Google 



63 

This bed, which iuniished the foregoing samples of mart 
for analysis, is the highest known to me upon ihe Tail 
River. This fact, however, does not prove its non-exist- 
ence sliii iarlher; and I predict ttiat careful examination 
will reward (he planters in that county, with many addi- 
lioji.-il beds. Every bed tiiiist be regarded as a prize, if it 
is limited to 50 loads, 

§ 24. The reputation of marl, as a fertilizer, in Edge- 
combe County, has led most of the planters to search for 
i: upon their premises. Probably there is no better proof 
of the value of this substance than is furnished by the esti- 
mation in which it is held by its citizens. Regarded, in 
years which are past, as a county somewhat beHind the 
times in literature and science, she has, nevertheless, out- 
stripped all other counties in the application of good sense 
and common sense to her farming interests. Facts are 
sometimes misunderstood, as well as misrepresented abroad, 
when applied to the internal policy of a State. So, I sup- 
pose, Edgecorflbe has been misunderstood ; — for agricultur- 
al improvements are incompatible with ignorance and dark- 
ness. If we find a people alive to their inJernal interests, 
so vital as agricultnre, we may be sure that mind has been 
at work. But, however this may be, Edgecombe has the 
repuiaiion of being the first connty in its agricultural im- 
provements and agricultural prosperity. Her success has 
been secured chiefly by her marl beds ; it would have been 
secured, in the end, if marl had not existed ; but more time 
and capita! would have been required to have placed her in 
her present enviable position. 

Although the ioregoing remarks may be regarded as out 
of place and uncalled for, yet I deemed it right to give cre- 
dit where it was so justly due ; without at all questioning 
the ability oi her neighbors to compete auccesslnlSy with 
her for the next five years. 

There is another fact worth recording: — Edgecombe has 
many men who have been educated at her excellent Uiii- 



abyClOOgle 



54 



versity, who regard agriculture a befitting profession for 
an educated man— an example which the friends of agri- 
culture will be pleased to see imitated in other parts of 
this Kepublic. 

5 25. The Mad beds at Kocky Mount belong (o the 
same age as the preceding. They are the blue sheiiy beds 
frequently furnishing that large scollop or feature, which is 
regarded as characteristic of the middle tertiary, Tlie ap- 
pearance of granite and sieiiite at Kocliy Mount, has pro- 
duced a series of falls in the Teiu rivsr ; and sometimes ihe 
marl is found resting immediately upon those pyro-crysfal- 
line rocks. The beds are associated with the following 
strata : 

1. Above the marl, stratum of sand and rounded peb- 
bles, which is ten feet thick. 

2. Marl somewhat sandy, bat impervious to water, mid 
hence, the surface water percolates through the upper 
mass and is thrown out by the marl. The upper is 
made up of fine or small shells, like that of Mr. Ham's 
of Goldaboro'. The lower is intermixed with Uie 
large scollops and clams — (Venus difformis.) 

The marl, like that of other beds, is rich in lime, and of- 
ten consolidated or cemented in different parts of Ihe struc- 
ture. The whole thickness of the shelly strata is seven 
feet. The marl is sometimes charged with rounded peb- 
bles of different sizes. The position of tlie marl is upon 
the banks of (he Tau ; several beds appearing in the banks 
near the falls, or at one-half, and also, about one mile, below 
the railroad bridge. There are points where excavations 
have been madej but it is probably continuous for nearly a 
mile. Whenever there is an undulation hy which the 
Sirata are elevated even a few feet, there ihe marl appears 
in the banks. Rounded stone and pebbles are strewed over 
the surface in great abundance, but this fact is no indication 



abyCOOglC 



that currents have swept over the country in a certairi di- 
reclion.- Some of the soil at Rocky Mount is light and re- 
quires theapplicatioti of marl to give it move reteniiveness, 
as well as to furnish a fertilizer to supply the waste to which 
Che lands have been subjected. 

The marl strata reappear at Tarhoro', at many points ; 
sometimes on the river banks^ and sometimes in the banlis 
of creeks. One of the important beds is near the vil- 
lage, and belongs to Mr. Bullock. 

Tiie section which contains the marl, is made up of— - 

1. Sand which extends below the water of the creek. 

2. Clay with lignite, three or four feet. 

3. Marl, eaven or eight feet. 

4. Sand snd clay without fossil, or only a few casts. 

5. Sand, gravel aud soil. 

The marl is intermixed with coprolites, a few bones, and 
water- worn pebbles — mostly at (hehottom of the bed. There 
is the same tendency to consolidation as at Rocky Mount, 
and at other places oil the Nense and Cape Fear rivers: The 
same shells, consisting of large pectens, (Pecten Madiso. 
nius,) Venus Difformis, and two or three species of Pec- 
Junculus. Masses of sulphuret of iron are not uncommon. 

The marl of this bed is composed of — 

Sandorsiles, 66,25 
rhosphate of lime and oxide of iron 

and alumina, 7.50 

Carbonate of iron, 34.15 

Orgimic matter Lind water, 2.10 



Magnesia, 



100 5G 
Mr. Bridge' Marl. 



It will be observed, that rather more than one-half must 
be set down as useless mailer. The analysis was made of 



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56 

that portion containing the small bivalve shells, and as 
many of the shells are rejected as convenieitf ; there will, 
therefore, be more lime than is given in the analyst, by 
three or four per cent. It is, perhaps, unnecessary, to re- 
mark, that the finer the material the better; that the mat' 
with small bivalveSj is better than (he marl with large ones. 
The latter when abundant is belter for quick lime. 

Mr. Knight's marl bed is three miles from the village, 
and has been extensively employed in marling: It is upon 
the banks ot the Tau. 

I obtained the following section of its beds ; 

1. Sand anc! gravel at '.he river's edge. 

2. Sandy marl. 

3. Marl with shell, six feet. 

4. Greenish or blue clay, six feel, containing casts ol 
shells only. 

5. Sand. 

The whole thickness is about thirty (eet. 

This bed has furnished many large bones, both of Saurians 
and land quadruped, principally of the Mastodon. This 
bed has been regarded as equal to the best of the varieties 
of shell marl. Sand seems to be a constant associaie oi 
the maris. It occurs both above and below the. stratum 
of shells, In this respect there is a general uniformity in 
the marl deposits in the dillerent vallies — the Cape Fear, 
tht Nense, andthe Tau. The intermixture of sand is the 
material which diminishes or changed this value. Though 
coarse shells, as the large scollops and clams, together with 
certain species of oyster, constitute a poor kind of marl — 
these resist for a long lime Iho action of the weather. — 
Where these have abounded, 1 have beard unfavorable re- 
ports of the efitcts upon the soil ; — or, at least, the good 
and advantage expected were not realized. This all goes 
toshow the importance of a comminution of ihe material : 



abyCOOglC 



it favors solubility. Those agents, as water and carbonic 
ncid, act with more energy, and the power of absorption ia 
increased in the substances themselves. 

5 27. Where the coarser marls are necessarily employed, 
the advantages of a crusher is obvious. Plaster is opera- 
tive immediately, because it is ground fine ; if it were more 
in the condition of coaiae shot, its effects would not be ap- 
parent on most of soils. The subject of comminution is 
one of considerable interest in husbandry. It is not expec- 
ted, however, that soils can be ground or comminuted, ex- 
cept through and by the action of the weather. The marls 
which are coarse, however, when made into composlSj will 
be improved materially, especially when these composts are 
composed of organic matter, which liberates carbonic acid. 
Frequent stirrmg is also important. Another mode is by 
the application of marl. Exfoliation of the large shells 
beoinsiU once; the loss of organic matter is replaced by 
water, and the whole becomes porous. One fact worthy of 
notice, is, that mixtures are always more valuable than sim- 
ple bodies ; even phosphate of lime is more active and ben- 
eficial when intermixed with materials constituting a com- 
post, or intermingled with a compost. The constitution of 
man and animals requires mixture. We have seen that the 
soil is eminently a compound mass; and when food is lalten 
into the stomach, there are agents which assist its recep- 
tion in large quantities into the system. So long as we 
have regard to the necessities of plants, we can hardly form 
a mass of compost, too complex in its constitution, or which 
shall consist of too many elements, and I thmk it highly 
probable that many iailureshave arisen from neglecting the 
aid to be derived from intermixture, 

§ 26. The marl of Mr. Bullock's, near Tarboro', and upon 
his home plantation, has been fairly tested, and proves 
valuable. 

The section of the slope in which it occurs, is represen. 
ted by the following beds, beginning with [he lowest : 



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58 



1. Sand. 

9. Marl, wiih shells, scollops, &-.c., 3^ feot. 

3. Blue compact clay, which contains decomposing py- 
rites. 

4. Satid and clay, in alternating layers, mostly destitute 
of fossils, 5 feet. 

5. Sand. 

The blue or greenish mnvl of j\lr. Eul]ocli.'s planlutiou 
has the following couiposition ; 



Sand, 






3^.40 


Phosphate of lit 


ne and o 


xidoofiron. 


3.21) 


Carbonate of ii 


me, 




54 53 


Magnesia, 






1.50 


Potash, 






trac3. 


Soda, 






trace. 


Organic matter, 






4.88 


Water, 






1.38 



Mn Bullock's plantation consists of rather mor? than 
one thousand acres. It lies in n great bend of the Tau 
river. From the river, lo the higher ground, (here are four 
distinet.but low terraces. The average crop of seed cotton 
is about twelve hundred pounds. The marl is, in part, 
composted ; it is, however, allowed to be exposed to the. 
weather, aud undergoes ceitain mechanical as wel! as 
chemical changes, prior to use. Probably, it is always im- 
portant to give the marl air, as it may be termed, before it 
is spread npon the soil, even if no mechanical change is 
effected by it. 

Marl, which is a year old, is much better than when 
taken from the pit, and spread 'mmediately upon the soil, 
especially if it is turned over three or four times during 
the year. 



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^ 93 The improvements of the Panola plantation, underihe 
direct supervision of its intelligent proprietors, Messrs. 
Norfleet ifc Dancy, exhibit something of ihe spirit which 
pervades Edgecombe. 

The- plantation was old, and was purchasad for $65 per 
acre, and consists of 908 acres, 550 of which is now under 
cultivation. Its former proprielor had pursued the system 
of rest so common in the South, without a thought of pro- 
viding lor the ftiture, when the most valuable parts oi Ihe 
soi! had been coiiveried into corn, cotton and bacon, and 
sold in a (distant market. Its new proprietors, on making 
this purchase, were aware Ihat the old system could not ba 
pursued, and they were we!! satisfied that the only system 
which could renovate the soif, though originally good, 
was to supply an abundance of fertilizers or manures. The 
plantatijii rises in three or four terraces froni the river, the 
lowest of which is often overflown with the high water of 
the river. Logs, flood wood and (rash cover the lower 
terrace, and occupy l!ie low ravines. By a judicious ap- 
plication of the force of only two laborers, three thousand 
bushels of ashes were made in two weeks from this refuse 
wood. In addition, to this important fertilizer, twenty 
thousand loads of compost were made, consisting ol cotton 
seed, stable manure and rjver sediment, and the muck of 
ditches. Ample manures were taken for draining, by a 
free opening and deepening of the old ditches. The main 
body of the land is rolling, the higher parts are sandy, and 
the lower formed of a clay loam. 

The points worthy of notice, are the preparations for a 
productive farming, and the expenditure of capital for this 
purpose; and, altiiough it would seem, that the plantation 
itself had furnished a large amount of material, at a trifling 
cost, stiil, bones and guf^no were also prepared at a cost of 
©52 per ton, and bone dust, at fifty cents per bushel, in 
New York, 



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5 29, The first and important lesson, which the agricuUu- 
rjst should learn, is, that he must supply his land with ma- 
nure, and if any planter will calculate the cost of a lull 
supply of manure, and then the cost of new clearings, 
required by the old system of husbandry, he will find it 
cheaper, and hence, more economical to make and buy 
manures, than to clear Up his plantation, for the purpose 
of cultivating new lands, and those which have been par- 
tially restored by rest. The improvements of the Panola 
plantation do not terrninatein furnishing an ample supply 
of manures. The removal of the cabins to an airy, healthy 
and central position, is one of the most important improve- 
ments. The arrangements, too, of the out-houses and 
water sinks, so as to save nitrogenous matter, with their 
phosphates, is another step in improvement, worthy of imi- 
tation by others. So, also, it is made the special business 
of some one or two laborers, to collect all matters which 
may be used as a fertilizer. But I need not dwell upon 
other minutije of the improvements designed \n secure, in 
the end, a profitable investment of capital. Considered in 
the light of a speculation only, \t does not require a 
prophet's vision to predict the result. 

In the foregoing remarks, 1 have had in view the fact, 
that information ot what others are doing is one of the 
best stimulants to improvement by others. The most im- 
portant results will be brought about by the successful pro- 
jects of enterprising men, when they are made known. It 
is a principle which applies to a!l professions. 

Now, the season having passed, and the crops been gather- 
ed and weighed, it turns^out that ihe cotton fields have yield- 
ed one bale of cotton, of four hundred pounds, to the acre, 
which the year beiore did not amount to one half of thai, 
and the corn lands, which, before the improvement, would 
not and did not yield three barrels to the acre, have yielded, 
this year, eight: a well marked and decided improvement. 
The season, it is true, has been favorable, and it should be 
noticed in making up the results. 



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61 



§ 30 1 have one more remark to make in this connexion : it 
relates to the eftect on the product, when high cultivation 
is resnrled to. This effect is of the highest cnnsequence, 
and it does not end with a simple increase of product, but 
also in a product ijf a better quality. We probably, how- 
ever, undersland the mode of increasing a production, bet- 
ter than givingit a superior quality. The Hnt of cotton is 
better, if produced by higli'cuJiivation, than by an indiffe- 
rent cultivation. Indian corn is better, when the land is 
supplied sufficiently with its proper food. It is light, if it 
lacks food in the soil. Wheat is heavier, hy three or four 
pounds to the bushel, if grown on a rich soil. Barley is 
sold by weight, for difFerentiaoiis produce a grain lighter and 
more chaffy than others. Oats vary much in their weight, 
fay being grown on soils differing in their fertility. 

New lands are productive, and at the same time give a 
superior quality of grain. On old lands, there is a dimi- 
nution of weight, and a loss in the quality of the product : 
there is more offal. Attention should be given, then, to 
the quality of the cotton, as well as to the quantity. The 
planter may control, in a manner, both results, or, in other 
words, he may modify results, by cultivation. It is well 
known that cotton requires a stiller soil than corn. The 
principles involved in a cultivation of these two staples of 
the South, are not the same. The object, in the cultivation 
of Indian corn, is the development of cellular tissue. I do . 
not yet know the precise modes by which we can apply 
principles successfully to practice. Yet, the cellular tis- 
sue requires, for its development, more carbonate of lime 
than phosphate of lime. Analysis of the different tissues 
proves this, if this is true, it is an indication that the 
maris are adapted, especially, to the growth of cotton; that 
while it contains some phosphate of lime, as this is neces- 
sary' to all tissues, yet the lime in the cellular tissue is iur- 
nished, originally, from the carbonate. 



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62 

Experiments might be devised for testing the truth of 
these views; — the object being to increase the lint, and 
improve its quality. lias any atienlioii been given to the 
selection of seed? — selecting iVoin the field the seed which 
hiis first ripened, and which has given the longest, finest, 
and most silky staple ? 

The marl beds of the Tnu River are exposed at points 
below Tarboro', from Greenville to Washington. 

5 31. At Greenville they have been successfully used — 
it belongs to the middle tertiary. Just below Sparla, the 
left bank is ihirty feet high, and there is exposed a remark- 
able stratum of marl. Above Sparla, the bank is too low 
to expose it. 

In the vicinity of Greenville, the marl beds are numerous, 
Mr. Brown's bed exhibits the following strata :— 

1. Sand exposed at the bottom. 

2. Two feet of sandy clay. 

3. Three inches of yellow sand. 

4. Eight feet of shell marl, with greerish grains. 

5. Sand, with sandy clay, of a green color. 

Mr. Britten's marl exhibits a section quite similar to the 
above : — 

1. Green indurated sand. 

2. Marl, six to seven feet thick. 

3. Sandy Marl, one foot. 

4. Brick clay, four or five feet thick, 

5. Sand. 

This marl is reddish, and operates favorably and quickly. 
The stratum of clay occupying this position is not uncom- 



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mon. Ill fact, it is almost continuous over the wliole 
country, thougli it is not always present as a covering to 
the marl, 

A bad on the plantation of Mr. Boyd, in the same neigh- 
borhood, is about fifteen feet thick: it is overlaid by a 
band of yellow clay, upon which there is sand five feet 
thick. 

§ 32. Six roiles below Greenville is Dr. Dixon's marl 
bed, which had just been opened at the time of mj visit. 
It is blue shelly marl; most of the shells are small; and the 
mass is much disintegrated, v 

The strata \h in the following order : — 

1. Mad 15 feet thick — Us bottom not certainly exposed. 

2. Blue clay, 3 inches. 

3' White loose sand, differing htit little from driftino- 
sand. 



This marl is composed 


of the following 


proportions 


in 


fty grains;— 








Sand, 




15.70 




Carbonate of lime, 




27,30 




Phosphate of lime i 


ind cxyde of iron. 


l.GO 




Water, 




l.fly 




Magnesia, 




.11 




Potash, 




trace. 




Organic matter, 




2.94 





49.34 

111 the banks of the Tau,.at Greenville, numerous flat- 
tened masses are washed out of the bank. The color is a 
drab, or light yellowish brown- They are frequently per- 
forated by a round hole ; they have a close resemblance to 
the ordinary clay stones, Coprolites are associated with 
them : and I was inclined to regard them all as coprolites ; 



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but it proved that many of the flatleiiKd bodies are not 
coproHtes. Analysis of one of them gave ihe following 
results : — 

Insoluble matter, .13 

Phosphate of lime, 34.50 

Carbonate of lime, 10.50 

Magnesia, trace. 



The coproliles have always given potash, when tests are 
applied. These substances in the Greenville beds are soft, 
and unlike coprolites which occur on the Cape Fear river. 
They are unlike them in color and form. Most of them 
are, in Iheir flattened cakes, not 'much unlike a cracker in 
form; though, in this respect, there is much diversity. 

The country around Washington is too low to give good 
exposures of shell marl. It is, however, common in ihe 
low banks, but liable to be overflowed. 

§ 33, Mr. Myers' marl bed gives the following section : 

1. Blue marl, 

2. Shelly marl, 3 feet. 

3. Red marl, 8 inches. 

4. Brick clay, 
B. Sand. 

Another bed, upon the plantation of the Sheriff of the 
County, was too much concealed by water at the lime of 
my visit. A specimen of the marl furnished for analysis 
gave the following proportions : 

Water, 1.40 

Organic matter, 3.70 



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65 

Sand, 

Phosphate of lime and oxyde of iron, 

Lime, 

Magnesia, 



Tiie analysis tontama less lime thaft was expected. The 
sheily poiiions were rejected in part ; wliioh, had they been 
incUtded, would have given a larg'i" per centage of lime. 
The effects, as ihey have appeared upon trial, were remark- 
ably good and palisfactory. The absence of high banks in- 
creases the Idbor and expense of raising the marl. 

I tooli occasion to visit. Jones County, on my return 
from Liie examination of the State lands in Carterel. The 
Hon, Mr. Duniteli, of Newhern, accompanied me, and laid 
me under many obligations for the information receiveti of (he 
couniry. 

This County has an undulating surface ; the soil has more 
clay than Edgecombe or Pitt. The foundation for the high- 
csi improvement in agjiculture exists in its soil. Less cotton 
is cultivated than in Edgecombe ; but, when cultivated, it is 
not diiBciilt to raise it up to sixteen hundred pounds of seed 
cotton per acre. Marl of a peculiai kind esisls in the waters 
of Rainbow Creek, and on the banks of Miller's Creek- 
The marl is formed of the debris of exceeding large oyster 
shells, some of which are 14 inches long, and I ^ inches thick. 
They sonietimes weigh 6 and 7 pounds. The surface shells 
are decomposing ; tliose deep in the beds are quite sound. 
The iiiari, h.iwever, of these beds, is less valuable (hiin when 
CO LTi posed of small shells. The testimony of those who have 
been acquainted with ita use is of a negative kind ; but still 
I could not learn all the circumstances atteuding ils applica- 
tion. At PoUocksville, on the Trent, this marl appears in 
its banks, and presents the following section :—- 



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1. Sand. 

2. Oyster bed. 

3. Sand. 

4. OysI.er bed. 

5. Sand. 

It ia about 20 feet to (he second bed of oysters. Beneath 
tliese beds is the time vocb ol the uountiy, consisting of con- 
solidated marl, Itaving llie same charaoters as (hat npon the 
Trent near Newbem. In many places, its purity is such 
that it mal(ea a good bine ; in otliers it is sandy, and makes 
a weak lime. ■ 

§ 34. The marl of Little 0«nlenlney Creek possesses the 
same characteristics as that of the Tan and Neuse, 

For the opportunity for making the -examination of Liule 
Contentney, Toasnol, and a part of Nash County, 1 am in- 
debted lo the kindness of Mr, Myers, of Washingfon, Presi- 
dent of the Greenville and Raleigh Plank Road. 

The marl upon the plantation of Mr. Streeler was loo 
much concealed by water to admit only a slight examination. 
The fossils, however, proved the deposits to be of the middle 
tertiary. The large Pectunculus and Tenua difformis, com- 
mon at other places, were observed among other common 
fossils of iJie formation. 

The beds upon tbe plantation of Mr. May were also cover- 
ed with water. These, in part, were sandy, and a specimen 
gave only a small per centage of lime in the analysis. 

As for example : — 



Sand and silica, 

Phosphate of lime and oxyde of iron, 



Carbonate of lime, 
Water, 

Organic matter, 
Potash, 



81-20 
8 '00 

trace. 
6.60 
1.20 
2.60 

trace; 



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67 

This marl, as poor as it is, containing less than twenty pet 
cent, of available matter, has increased the ciops, according 
to the statement of Mr. Maj, fomfold It is probable, how- 
ever, that this sample is not aia aveiage of the marl stratum. 
The soil of Mr. May is sandy— at leasten parts of the plan- 
tation. 

^35 Tiie nnri of Co] Biineb, upon the Tossnol, is 
fiimilii to Ihat upon the plantation of Mr. Ham, near Golds- 
boio' It IS the blue mail, infeimixed with innumerable 
email bi\ ilve shelU, which have becoihe very thoroughly de- 
■composed The bed is eleven feel thick, covered with a 
stratum of sand live feet thick. 

§ 36, The deposits of marl upon the Roanoke are no less 
impoilaiit than upon the Tau, Neuse and Cape Pear, My 
examinations weie confined chieily to Hahfax; County. The 
feeds, considered as one formation, consist of the following 
JH embers ; — 

i. Layers of decomposed rock— a coarse mica slale, 

2. Marl loaded with fossils, five feet. 

3. Marl of a green color, with only a few shells, eight t© 

ten feet. 

4. Blue cLay, from ten to fifteen feet thick. 

5. Reddish clay, two feet. 

6. Gravel, fine and coarse, twenty feet. 

7. Gray sands and loam. 

The marl lies deep, and is exposed only in ravines. It is 
attended with much expense m laismg it. Mr. Pope, of 
Halifax, has used it upon his plautaiion, ami has made pre- 
parations for its extensive consumption, and the results have 
been favorable. The soils of Halifax, having been under 
cultivation a coniuiy and a half, or more than a century^ 
have become exhausted. 



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The soil of one of die oldest plantalions gave the following 
results on analysis : — 



Silesorsand, 


95.38 


Alumina and oxyde of iron, 


1.44 


Lime, 


.11 


Magnesia, 


Uace. 


Orgiinie matter and water, 


2.45 


Potash, 


.01 



■ 99.39 

It is perfectly similar to the sandy soils of Cape Fear. 
These examples of sandy soils are beyond the reach of the 
overflowings of the lloanoke, which always leave a rich 
aedimenl behind, and which is employed aa a fertilizer, to a 
limited esienl. 

The marl is also too mnch charged with sand, in parts of 
the beds. The blue varieties gave ihe following compo- 
ailion :— 

Sand, 65.60 

Phosphate of lime, and oxyde of iron, 9.60 

Carbonate of lime, 81.20 

Magnesia, trace. 

Water and organic matter, 3.60 

99.20 



Regarding the available matter in this marl as thirty per 
cent., it shoidd not be ranked with the inferior varieties — 
though the sand amount to sixty-tive per cent. 

^ 37. The marl of Fishing Orcek should not be passed 
over unnoticed. It consists of the three varieties, the red, 
blue, and consolidated marl. The blue has the following 
composition :— 



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Silex, 

Phosphate of lime and gxyde of hoi 

Catboiiate of lime, 

Organic matter and water, 



72.50 
6.25 

20.00 
1.25 

100.00 



This blue variety underlies, or is beneath, the red or 
brown variety. The latter is composed of 

Sand, 62.50 

Phosphate of lime, and oxyde of iron, 10.00 

Carbonate of lime, 25.60 

Magnesia, ,11 

Orgiuiic matter and water, 1,30 

99.51 

Both varielies are more or lesa consoHdaled, indicating a 
favorable composition for agricullural purposes. The parte 
Belected for analysis contained fewer shells than the general 
niiiss. They are small bivalves, ao common in Wayne, at 
Goldsboro', and on the Tossnot, which is really of a better 
kind than the varieties containing larger and less decompos- 
able fossils. 

The shelly portion contains more lime, which is derived 
from the shells themselves ; but less precipitate, which con- 
tains phosphate of Ume. This variety gives the following 
composition : — ■ 

Sand, IS.tjO 

Phosphate of lime and oxyde of iron, 3.75 

Carbonate of lime, 80.00 

Organic matter, 1'25 



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70 

The average cfiiant.i(y of lime is above fifty, taking the 
whole mass together. 

Intervening between the two varieties, the bhie and red, 
there is a nuire consolidated portion — a variety which answer* 
to (he appellation of stone marl — though it differs in its fossils 
from that of the Trent at Newbern, as well as from that at 
Wilmiagton. It gave me the following analysis : — 

Sand, 17.50 

Phosphate of lime and oxyde of iron 
and alumina, 7.50 



97.74 



Carbonate of lime, 
Organic matter anc! water. 



This variety exceeds the blue and red in the quantity of 
lime ; and it appears that, as the sand diminishes and the 
lime is increased, there is an approach to the formation of a 
soUd substance. The solidity and toughness, however, often 
depends upon a quantity of soluble silica, which, when pre- 
sent, forms an exceeding toogh deposit, possessing many of 
ihe characteristics of a burr-stone. In this contfition, th* 
stone is unfit for agricultural purposes ; but makes a durable 
stone for walls and fences. It is also an excellent fire-stoncj 
and may be used for the backs of fire-places, though it is 
charged largely with lime. 

§ 38. The foregoing samples of marl, derived from the 
same geological series, furnish, upon the whoEe, a uni- 
formity of composition which was unexpected. It is true that 
a few of them contain an excess of sand^ which I think due 
to accidental causes, and which does not heiong to the depo- 
sit as a whole. It often happens that cuiients hear along 
sand in targe qtrantitie'^ ; and (he position which the ihelf- 
fish are occupjmg, may receive, at time=i, la«ge supplies of 



abyCOOglC 



71 

arenaceous matter. SomefimeSj the lime has fallen to ten 
per cent. — the sand increasing in proportion. But the aver- 
age proportion is thiity-lhree per cent. 

The selections for analysis were not made with a view to 
oblain a maximum quantity of Hme in (he several beds ; but 
rather an average. It will be seen hereafter, i.hai the shell- 
marl diffeiis materially in composition from a formation upon 
which it rests, or wliich is geologically older, and beneath it. 
There is, perhaps, in this older formation, more calcareous 
matter than is usually credited to il. The analyses which 
have betn made have excluded the mailer composing the 
shells, which it often contained in great abundance. They 
are very freijuently entire and unchanged. In the sheil- 
marl, the fossils, when small, decompose ; and, though ihe 
matter in which ihey are imbedded is calcareous, still the 
fossils furnish, by disintegration, a large share of it, which is 
obtained by analysis. 

The general aspect of the marl, as it lies in the beds, is 
quite the same. The thickness is variable, exceeding, in 
a few localities, fifteen feet : in others, it is less than three 
feet There is, I helieve, but one stratum which contains 
those fossils which have given it the appellation of middle 
ter.iary. 1 have not seen it divided into t*o, except the for- 
mation upon the Trent. 



THE GREEN SAND— ITS COMPOSITION, ETC. 

§ 39. Beneath the shell marl and belonging lo an older 
formation, there are deposits which are of Ihe age of Ihe 

cretaceous rocks of Europe. I have referred to (his forma- 
tion before, and have slated that, as a fertilizer, it is superior 



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72 



to the shell mails which I have describeci. Its color is green, 
and whea examined carefully, it is found to be composed of 
irregular particles of sand, which, when crusted upon paper, 
leave a greenish mark. The deposit is made up mainly of 
this matter. The most characterislic masses are upon the 
Cape Feaniver, at a place called Black Rock, and upon 
the river banks near Wilminglon, These beds belong to the 
same formations as those known in New .lersey as raari, and 
which are highly esteemed in lliat Stale, and which deserve 
all the praise which has been bestowed upon it. 

The Joss of the specimens collected far examination m the 
Moratory, rendered it impossible to fujnish analyses of the 
green sand. I shall, (herefore, ^ive two or three analyses of 
the Delaware marl of the same age. It is imporlant to know 
what it contams, and as (here is a great uniformity of compo- 
eitioti id ail the beds both in New Jersey and Delaware, and 
probably in those of t!\is Scale, its composition will be a guide 
to those who wish (o use the same material upon the Cape 
Fear or wherevei it occurs. 

Its coniposition is represented by the following analyses : 



Silica, 


70.20 




70.31 


Potassa, 


e.io 




.6.51 


Protoxide of ii< 


)n, 15.25 




15 16 


Alumina, 


3.14 




2.63 


Wafer, 


6.82 




6.26 J. liodgers. 




100.91 


J. 


Mmiifield. 



Professor J, 0. Booth's Memoir of the geological survey of 
the Slate of Delaware, p, 71, 1841. 

Another analysis, upon ibe same page as the foregoing, 



49.30 
9.16 



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Protoxyde of ivoiij 24. ^6 

AhimiDa, 7.82 

Water, 11.26 

lOU.OO 

The percentage of potash in the last analysis is nearer 
the average of the formation than the two preceding it. It is 
to potash that its fertilizing effects have been attributed. Mosl 
of this substance is entirely destitute of carbonate of Ume. 
Still, if the fossil shells were intermingled with the materiel 
submitted to analysis, it would give a notable quantity of 
carbonute of lime. When the fossils are decomposed and 
intermixed with green aand, carbonate of lime is then- found. 
Ii will be noticed in the foregoing analysis, that phosphate 
of lime does not appear in the list of substances which it 
contains ; notwithstanding this, 1 believe it will always be 
found. 

In a single specimen from Black Rock, consisting of the 
inside cast of a shell common to the formation, 1 found a 
remarkable amount of phosphate of lime. The substance 
examined differea in no respect from the general mass, being 
made up as usual of the grains of green sand, moulded to 
the inside of a oucculloea : the outside was removed This 
specimen contained 52 per cent, of phosphate of lime. This 
was, no donbt, an accidental circumstance ; by somi cause 
or other animal matter had been jiresecved to that large 
amount. If this amount should be found in the casts of the 
shell so common in the formation, it will become an impor- 
tant fertilizer ; not simply from the potash, but from the pre- 
sence of an equally important element, phosphate of lime. 

5( 40. The green sand in Delaware frequently consists of 
two portions— an upper and a lower. The lower is the one 
regarded as destitute of carbonate of lime. The iippei' la 
calcareous, and approaches in composition to (he shell marl 
of this State. 



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Thus, ihe upper consists of — 

Carbonate of lime, 18.6 

Green sand, 33. 

Sand, 33 

Clay, 14 



Another analysis gave — 

Carbonate of lime, 
Green sand, 
Sand, 
Clay, 



99. T 

§ 41 . The foregoing furnishes the elements which may 
be expected in the lower deposits of the Cape Fear and 
Neuse. Black Rock is ten miles below Brown's landing. 
The gieen sand at this place is consolidated lo the water's 
edge, and extends to an nnknown depdi beneath the water. 
There are ten or twelve feet above wafer, extending along 
the water's edge, against which boats may anchor. At this 
place, the niarlis so accessible, that when the navigation of 
the river is practicable, boats may take in a cargo of it at a 
trifling expense. It is yet lo be tried, and yet to be determin- 
ed, how far this material will admit of transportation. Should 
the coal of Deep liver find its way down Ihe Cape Fear, and 
boats are returning empty or with light loads, it is not at all 
improbable that the green, sand may be used in Chatham- and 
Moore counties as a fertihzer. This is rendered still more 
probable, from the fact that fertilizers are rare upon the upper 
waters of this river, and the lands require something of this 
kind. Should phosphate of lime constitute an important ele- 
ment of this bed of green sand, it would bear Iransportalion 
still farther, and admit of its use m the interior of the counties 
bordering upon the river and its branches. 



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75 



The strata of rock at this place consist simply of the lower 
masB already described, and a bed of pebbles upon -which 
reposes a thin bed of shell marl and sand. The green sand 
may be regarded as a continuous stratum, differing from the 
shell marl in this respact. At Mr, J. Sykes's, 9 miles be- 
low Black Rock, the formation appears again. 

§ 42. On the Neuse, in the vicinity of Goldsboro', a for- 
mation appears of considerable extent, unlike the shell marl, 
and unlike, also, the green sand. Its fossils do not yet declare 
whether it is an upper mass of green sand or the lowest divis- 
ion of the tertiary. Fragments of an ammonite have been 
obtained from it, but the exogyra and belemnite, so characteris- 
tic of the green sand, have escaped detection up to this time. 
The formation is a consolidated marl or marl stone; of a light 
gray and a yellowish brown. 

The iollowing strata belong to a section near Col. Collier's 
plantation, to whom I am greatly indebted for the interest he 
manifested as well as in aiding the survey. 

1. Green marly clay. 

2. Marl, eleven feet, containing spine of echiuc, ciabs' 
toes, &c, 

3. Gray sandy clay, 

4. Yellow clay intermixed with some gravel, 

5. Sand. ■ 

The consolidated or stone marl lies upon a hill side. It 
IS about six feet thick. It is granular, and might be employ- 
ed as a building material, as well as lime for agricultural pur- 
poses, it is composed of — 



Silex or sand, 


39.20 


Phosphate of lime and oxyde of iron, 


1.60 


Carbonate of lime. 


55.20 


Magnesia, 


60 


Potash^ 


trace. 


Water and organic matter. 


2.20 



Ob, Google 



The good effects of L^is marl appeared in its use upon an 
exhausied patch of land : as a consequence, if gave a fine 
growth of clover, which came in without sowing- the seed. 

^ 43. A stooe marlaiWiltningion, lying iramedialcly upon 
the green sand, is composed of 

Silex, 30.00 

Phosphate of lime and oxyde of iron, 5.00 

Magnesia, .42 

Carbonate of Hme, 72.00 

Organic matter and water, 3,00 

99.42 

Intemiixed with this consoUdated marl are many fragments 
of coprohtes, forming with it a very singular conglomerate.. 
If it should prove extensive, it would form an excellent ferti- 
lizer. Thia apedmen % as obtained of Dr. Togno, at his ex- 
perimental Vineyard. 

Another specimen of stone marl gave the following results: 

Silex, 27.40 

Phosphate of lime and oxyde of iron, 1.40 

Magnesia, trace. 

Carbonate of hme, 60.00 

Water and organic matter, 11.00 

100.40 

S| 44. The marl stones, the composition of which 1 have 
just given, require grinding lo (it them for use, When floe, 
1 should regard their composition superior as fertilizers lo the 
shell marl. Careful burning m a kiln will fit ihern for use. 
In doing this, caution should be exercised noi lo expose them 
to a heat sufficient to fuse them. The greater e fleet which 



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materials have upon the soil, when fine, might pay the addi- 
tional expense reqiiitred lo bring them to the condi'ion of a 
fine powder. The beds of stone marl are quite limited 
patches of ordinary marl, consohdated by the calcareous mat- 
ter they contain. In mass, and exposed to the air, after re- 
moval from the quairy, they become haid ; and in that con- 
dition they become quite good buiJding storte, as well as 
a stone capable of resisting the heat of a fire without losing 
carbonic acid. 



MODE IN WHICH MARL AND LIME PRODUCE 
THEIR EFFECTS. 



§ 45. As the marls which have been described in the fore- 
going pages exert their influence upon vegetation, in psri, by 
the carbonate of lime contained in ihern, it will not be out of 
place to speafc of the mode, or modes, by which it is supposed 
to operate. Many theories have been proposed to account 
for tlie action of Inne upon vegetation. It is even true that 
some maintain that its action is scarcely to be depended upon, 
or that it has any action at ail. 

A gentleman remarked, al a meeting convened for the pur- 
pose of discussing matters relatiyg to agriculture, ihat he had 
tried lime upon a sandy soil , and it did no good ; and he then 



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(lied It upon a clay soU, and there it did no good ; and hence 
believed ait that had been said upon the value of lime should 
be received with considerable deduction from the statemenla. 
Now, it so happened that both varieties of soil had been sub- 
jected lo analysis, and it was proved that the sandy soil was 
quite didcient in org'anic matter, and that the clay soil was 
rich m lime, containing some ihree or four per cent. Now, 
it is conceded that one of the conditions lequned for the exhi- 
bition nf favorable effects of lime is, that there should be or- 
ganic matter ; and, in the case of a sod already rich in an 
element, it is also proved that farther additions of that ele- 
ment is not followed with visible results. Here were two 
cases, then, which had failed for want of judgment and_ 
knowledge in selecting the kind of soil upon which to apply 
a remedy, and an ignorance of the condition required to se- 
cure activity in the remedy iiself. Undoubtedly, there are 
many disappointmeOts of a similar kind, where experiments 
are tried, while ignoYantof the condition necessary for the 
action of the remedy, or ignorant of the kind of soil upon 
which the experiment was tried. 

I. So far as the plant is concerned, lime operates favora- 
bly upon vegetation by supplying an element necessary to the 
subsistence of the vegetable. Analysis of the ash of any 
plant gives an amount of lime in the slate of a caibonate — 
not thai a carbonate is the condition the Ume is in when a 
part of the living plant. Any of the organic acids, combined 
with lime, become carbonates in burning. One of the uses 
of lime is to supply one kind of nutriment. The amount re- 
quired by diR'erenl parts of plants varies willi the part. The 
outside integuments are richer in lime ihan the seed or woody . 
part ; and some plants require more lime than others. It is 
the food of the plant : and its use, so far aa the plant is con- 
cerned, is all its use. 

But, 2. Its use and eiTccts in the soil are not so simple as 
has been slated wilh respect to the plant. An an alkaline 



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eai'lhj having a strong affinity for all acids, il combines witli 
them, and forms a. neutral salt ; and this salt, being soiuble, 
IB taken up by the roots. We need scarcely spealc of its 
power to decompose astringent salts — the proto -snip hale of 
iron, formed in tliose soils where pyrites exist, and which, 
when formed, are decomposed ; and we may ihua find sul- 
phate of lime, gypsum, instead of sulphate of iron. 

3. If, ill soils abounding in peuty matter, organic acitJs are 
formed, — these will combine with lime, as already stated. 
But these acids being formed, and coming in contact with the 
matter of the same origin, act us preservatives ; or tliey are 
termed antiseptic bodies, which prevent putrefaction. When 
neutralized, they cease to be atitiaeplics, or preservers, and 
the remainder of the unchanged matter goes speedily lo decay. 
In this way, time promotes the decay of vegetable mancr, 
and, at the same lime, the salts formed become food for plania; 
and the salts formed are called organic sails of lime. So far, 
facts and theory support each other. 

4. In the laboratory, lime acts as a solvent on silica ; but 
it requires a high temperature. It is supposed by some that 
it dissolves it in the soil. But a more rational explanation is, 
that it decomposes silicates, consisting of silicate of alumina, 
potash, and soda ; by which action, it brings silicate of 
potash into a soluble condition, forming also one of the 
elements necessary to the straw of wheat. These silicates 
are essential to the strength of the stems of grasses and ceieala 
— when deficient, they are weak and lodge. There is, how- 
ever, considerable obscurity on these poinia The affinity of 
lime for other bodies is strong, and it is rational to suppose 
that, in the soil, its action is not unlike that I have sittempfed 
to explain. 

5. Uesulting from its chemical action, there are physical 
efiects upon the soil itself. No one need bo deceived as to 
facts. Lime spread upon a etiff, well drained soil, makes it 



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light and loose. Now, this does not reswlt from a racchanical 
mixture ; it comes from a [jvior chemical action, anil the 
looseness is an effect due to that. It can be in no other way 
than that which icsiilis from decomposition'. 

6. Another effect of iirae upon soils, especially when in 
combiu.Ttion with organic mailer, is to give to light soils an 
increased retenliveness of water, and an mcreased power to 
absorb water. This I have proved by direct experiment. 
A merely pulverized limestone will not increase this power ; 
but marl, which is in a slate of extreme subdivision, will, 
when it holds in combhiation organic niaiter. Hence, one 

■ of the effects of line marl upon a loose sandy soil, is to give 
it a body, 01- a relent'iveness of wafer. Marl put into a hill of 
growing potatoes becomes a fertilizer, while lime woidd de- 
stroy the vitality of the seed by absorbing its organic water. 
Mari will absorb ammonia, and thereby furtiish fertilizing 
matier. From the foregoing views, if correct, it appears that 
litne acta vitally, chertiically and physically. Vital, in being 
a constituent element of plants ; chemical, in its aciion upon 
silicates and oi^ganic matter ; physical, in imparting friability 
to argillaceous soils, and compaclness to sandy ones. 

7, The effecls of quick Jime and marl are not identical. 
They have, however, a common condition of the soil which . 
is required foi their action. I have already spoken of this condi- 
tion : it is the presence of organic matter. I hold that or- 
ganic matter is essential to the formationof an organic pal t, both 
soluble and suitable to the nature of vegetating matter. It i3 
proved by experiment, 1 believe, ihat thuafar, the effect of marl 
and a sub-caustic lime may be identical. But sub-caustic and 
causlic limes are capable from their superior affinities for potash 
and soda, to do more in the line of chemical action than marl, 
especially upon argillaceous soils, where it may combine with, 
or as it is frequently called, liberate, potash ; and it is probable 
that marl may exert the same influence in a feeble degree. 
Marl, however, from lis complex character, secures eJTecia 
of a different kind. Referring to (he composition of any of 



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the shell marls, it will be observed, that in addition to carbo- 
nate of lime, it also contains phospliate of lime. It will be 
observed, too, tiiat some of (he samples of marls are compara- ■ 
ttvely poorin carbonate of lime, but still tliey are represented 
as strong fertilizers; as producing in some instances fonr limes 
the amonnt of corn and cotton as would have been grown 
without them. From these and other facts looking the same 
way, it is probable thai (he effect ol marl is as much due to 
phosphate of lime aa to the carbonate ; and it may turn out 
that some of the ai'giilaceous deposits which scarcely effervesce 
with acids, may yield a still larger amount of the phosphates 
than the mavis, which give the largest quantity of lime. 
Hence, it will be important to look farther than the marls, 
and futnish chemisls A-idi alt the varieties of deposits which 
are not essentially sandy. Potash, also', even the shell ma^ls, 
should not be overlooked. 

The beds associated with the marls proper, are various, and 
liiey open a field of research and esperiment for the planter 
and chemist. Any of (he argiilaceous beds may be used in 
experiment. It is an important circumstance, that, although 
sand is predominant, in alarge part ofthe lower country, there 
are beds of clay and mart at hand, which may be employed 
to correct this peculiaiily, 

§ 46. Some of the beds of mail, or (hose which ai^e over, 
or beneath them, are highly pyrilous, or contain sulphuret of 
iron. This substance, when it decomposes, under ordinary 
drcumstances, forms an astnngent salt, which is injurious to 
vegetation, certainly if in large quantities. But this substance 
IS not to be thrown away and ejected into (he streams. If its 
decomposition is effected in the midst of marl, and especially 
as a compost heap, it will give the farmer gypsum, a substance 
really important in all kinds of soils. Marl or lime is always 
the corrective of (he astringent salts, such as copperas, or the 
sulphate of iron, or (he snlpaalc of alumina and potash, which 
may be furnished by stratas intermingled with pyrites. 
But small doses of sulphate of iron I believe to be useful : 



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hence, when pyrites isdisseiiiinafcd iiiabed ofmcirlj Ishoiik} 
esteem it so mucb (he more ; rtm], if found to be too strong, ii 
ia easily collected ot weakenetij as it may be called, by iiiter- 
taixture of pure mairi, or thepiue carbonate. 

There ia a small c ire u nisi a ace worth a pas'^ing nolice. The 
niarls contain bones, aa all know very well; and ihe laborers 
iire in the habit oif committing them to the waters, if upon ihe 
bank of the river oi- stream. As ihey are worth at least fifty 
cente per bushel, it will be economy !o save them. If broken 
into small pieces, and dissolved with oil of vitriol, the best of 
fertilizers is made. When dry, one hundred pounds of bone 
requite twenty-five pounds of acid for solution. Tins amount 
when welt mixed with gypaum, or any neutral substance, to 
dry it and give it bulk, is sufficient for half an acre. But the 
bones, at present, are worth still more as objects of natural 
ttirioslfy, and should be preserved for that purpose. 

Sulpharic acid will cost three dollars per hundred weight ; 
L may be procLsred in the larger towns for two doilara and 
fifty cents per liundred weigiit. The object, in using oil of 
vitriol, ia to make \he bones aolnbls, by wliichimmediatii effects 
follow. 

§ 47. The details relating to agriculture, which are spread . 
out upon the foregoing pages, embrace those general facts 
which were observed and collected during a reconooissance of 
several months. Although they may not contain all the in- 
formation which many, and perha^ most, of the reui5ei-s of 
this RepoiJ desire, antl have reason to expect, slill, I believe 
the way is prepared for pursuing inquiries to better advantage 
than before ; atid whicb will conduce to a sygteoi of agricul- 
ture which shall be better adapted to the spscial condition of 
tfi.e soil, climate, productions, and labor employed in the part 
of the country and State under consideration. 

Climate is a consideration which should not be disregarded, 
it must always modify and change, more or leas, thesystemaof 
iiuabandiy. If disregarded by the agriculturists, it will be ai 
ft post and sactifice of sometfiiug valuable. If the soil is dis- 



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jogatded, it willbealo^imthecvop; and neither can the dm- 
rnctec of the laborers, their capacidea and strenglhj be left, out 
of the account in making up our imnds on the isest sysleraa of 
ciiUure and of crops. It is of tlie utmost imponance, to be 
correctly informed of the eyalen^ of cullnre, and the kind of 
crops most in use in foreign countries. But the entire system 
of means and ends .sliould also be brought together in this 
information. 

When we are told, for the first time, of the great value of 
the turnip cropin England, it at once wakes up incentives tO' 
adopt it here, Wlien the system of agriculture, whichiapui- 
sued in England or E'landers, is represented to us, there are 
strong temptations to adopt it, before we know the peculiar 
eaiiseg which have led to i'.s genei'al adoption in ih'ose coun- 
tries. The kind of labor,' the cost of labor, the intelligence 
and capacity of laborers, are important items of information, 
before we eaa safely decide upon the question of adoption or 
vejectioti. The culture of roots for feeding stock is carried to 
parfeclion in England, and it i&a means of wealth. Bufj 
whether tiie means would crowa the end, in ibis country, is 
quite questionable. England enjoys a humid climate; and 
vegetables, among which is coin, scarcely ripen at all. But, 
supposing it would ripen occasionally, can- an uncertain a'op 
become profitable ? If corn would ripen every season, would 
ihe turnip and tool system of husbandry prevail thece? and 
may not roots, as food, suit better in the climate of England, 
ihanin the drier and less steady climate of Araenca? 

^ 43. I wish toincuicaieand enforce the followingdocfrine 1 
that every country, of sufficient extent to possess an individu- 
ality, favors certain productions ; and, in order lo cari'y these 
productions to the highest points of perfection to which they 
are susceptibSe, it may be done at a less cost in money and 
labor there than anywhere else ;— labor and money, laid out 
when circumstances are favorable, than when they are unfa- 
Torable. But systems, often, have certain advantages which 
may be adopted ; and an eclectic b_\ stem, properly methodized 
aaJ adapted, to circumsiancesj may become,, in every country. 



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[he besf of eyslems. English huabandiy, fully adopted in 
almo&t any part of our country, would fail in its ends ; but 
there are points in it which may be adopted anywhere, and 
should be everywhere. 

The afpiication of mind, and the bestowraent of 
thought, on husbandry and syslematic agriculture, is what is 
most wanted. That, combined with facts and a knowledge 
of the principles involved in huabandry, will give direction lo 
means and expenditure of labor and money to profilable 
results. The pursuit of agriculture, thus conducted, places 
the business on a level with the professions, and secuiee to (he 
individual the same atanding and influence which they have, 
aad the mental ability to cope with them in the arena where 
mind aIoi*e controls and governs. 



GEOLOGICAL POSITION AND RELATION OP 
THE TERTIARY BEDS— GEOLOGICAL TIME- 
MEANING AND ORIGIN OF THE TERMS, 
EOCENE, MIOCENE, ETC., AND USE OF THE 
WORD SYSTEM, ETC. 



, The mads have been consideied thus far as deposi- 



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which I have htea speaking ; it is their age, theic relations to 
each other, and to other deposits, which may he in immediate 
proximity, or at a distance. Enquiries of tiiia sort bring up 
manyqiiestions— questions wiiich, at first sight, seem vefy 
easy to be dispo-ied of, but which, on closer inspectioQ, are 
found beset with many unexpected diifi ceil ties. However 
this may be, [ remark, that these enquiries relating to the age 
of the strata, or to the system and series of rocks, and where 
they geologically belong, are not, in Jhis region, easily deter- 
mined. Opinions upon the question I have stated, have 
been expressed by the distinguished Professor Mitchell, of 
Chapel Hill, and by iHi: Conrad of Philadelphia, and others; 
and it is highly probable that these gentlemen are right in 
(Jie mam; but whether their views may not require a partial 
modification is yet to be seen. It is to be recollected that these 
strata of marl are scattered over an exteaded surface, and are 
disconnected with each other : they are isolated beds, lying 
in a belt of coiuilry, at least, four hundred miles from North 
to South, and two hundred miles in breadih, in its widest part ; 
and that the slight disturbance which this belt has undergone, 
since the era of the green sand, is too slight to show uncom- 
formabiiily. We are therefore obliged (o settle the question, 
by reference to the fossils of the beds, and the animals now 
hvjng in the Atlantic ; relying upon the determination of the 
ratio of the dead to the hving species. 

§ 50. But, before I proceed to speak of the age of 
these deposits, it seems necessary to make some prelimiiiary 
CKplanaLion. When we speak, of age in geology, the 
Idea of time is involved, and the question might well be put, 
how long a time, or how many yeare ago is it, since ihesestrata 
of marl were deposited. 

Time, when it enters as an element in geoloaical reasoning, 
is not expressed absolutely, but relatively. Time, considered 
as an element in human affairs, is both absohite and relative. 
It is absolute in all our calculations, because it has its units. 
A rot (tion of the earth upon its axis is the unit; and its revo- 



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iution round the sun is ihiee hundred and sixty-five and one- 
fouvth of this unit. As it ia she movements of stars which 
give us die unit, it ia called siileieal time ; and all events 
which have (ranspired since man was created, is measured by 
this unit, obtained from the observations upon their motion. 
We have data, (herefoiCj for ahsoliile lime. In the history of 
roan, then, there are two facts not known in geological lime, — 
a unit and a starting point. 

Geologists have sought for a unit, but have failed. Sir 
Charles Lyell has counted the hiyers in ihe sediments of 
the Mississippi, and measured the suspended mud in its wa- 
ters, which it annually brings to (he sea. Raliottally, it car- 
ried him back forty thousand years, since they began to be 
formed j but the unit was still problematical. He has counted 
the steps of tbe Niagara, as it has receded from a lower to an 
upper lake; but the sieps are unequai. It can give us ng 
unit in its march. Unlike the earlli and planets, which ro. 
tale in equal lime, or which revolve in great circles, and re- 
turn to the starting points in equal time, llie geological move- 
ments of all kinds are unequal, and their perturbations so 
great that ibcy giveus no unit to measure geological revolu- 
tions by. For us, space loo is a unit, and it gives us a meas- 
ure for ume ; so that time is space, and space is tune ; bu' 
geology cannot convert space into timcj nor time into space.. 

§ 51. But geologists have sought for units in life ; the search 
was foiled. Even man, whose hfe is most exalted, gives 
no true measure, no unit, either in his individuality, or in the 
sum and nggregale of his generations. Here, we can scarcely 
■ refuse to inquire, why geology gives us no unit by which Iq 
count the years of the earth? But then ihe enquiiy is fiiiile ; 
and we can only say, ihai it can have no final cause — it can 
have no practical use. But the determination of relative 
time is of immense use — it is practical. 

It has a practical application to the relations of our com 
fields, our iron arid ourparls. Time then, in geology, is only 
i-elalive, as it has no unit, if we lake geological movements 



abyCOOgIC 



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?a upward space, or hoiizontal space, "ive fi ad these move- 
roenta.have (tiken unequal times ; and, in equal limes, ill-:; 
movement have been uaetjua!. Vertical elevalions may 
amount lo ibree feet in a century, and the sediments may ac- 
cumulate thiily feet in thicknesa in five centmiea ; and yet, 
when centuries ore compared, both the sediment and the ver- 
tical lise are unequal in eqiiat times. The chionolo^y, (hen, 
of the earth, is computed relatively : time, which measures its 
history, is divided into unequal periods, and those periods have 
visible repi'«se matrons in the sedhnents of its ciiist. Their 
super-poKition upon one aiiolher, exhibits their relaiiopship to 
the eye, and Ihe conlemporanietj' is proved by the oneness of 
their products, and ihe samenessof their representatives of a 
former life — the remains of (lie dead entombed in the rock, 
whose formation was in -progress when ihey were the solf- 

§ 53. Taking the visible lepresantation alluded to, as lime, 
in a geoiogioat sense, our computations are made possible by 
breaks in the series. They are not, however, like the contisi- 
fliis and regular clicks of a chronometer, which divide out 
tlielime iofo parts of aunit; the breaks not only separate 
physically t!ie visibie representations, but put to a eland- 
stiil the cui'renta then bearing onward humbler forms of hfe, 
and thek- burthens of matter. The break is an upward 
raovement, and it marks the end of a dynasty, Sirange as 
it may seem, the earth's crust is marked by sychronous breaks , 
almost iiniversal. Breaks which pursue the direclious of 
mountain chains are sychronous; and parallel mountains are 
formed by sychronous breaks and elevations. After all, 
there is the sei*ihlance of law in the movements and breaks, 
which have seared the earth's crust, and brought to an end 
the existing order ofthinga. The area ofsedimenls is changed 
—the direction of the livers is changed — the life, as it is re- 
presented in species, is extinguished and changed. But, 
again, — after the turmoil attendant upon change has passed 
away, life begins to be lit up in new nbodea ; and as eacii 



abyClOOgle 



break i'a followed by new physical relations, the life which ■ 
appeal's is modified to fii, the change. Species are, therefore, 
!iew ; typical foiina remain ; and the great types upon which 
life, and ils various formSj were to be represenled, fu'e pre- 
served. The great scheme upon which life and its phenomena 
were to be displayed, lias never been broken or departed from. 
Each break J and the new sediments which follow, indicate 
a new period, having its beginning in the lowest of the strata ; 
and, as these new sediments are going on, life is still ebbing 
and flowing,, and tlie individuals which are dying are en- 
tombed in the accmnulaiing wastes of the older continents. 
The breaks, then, mark the outgoing and the incoming of 
new systems. The space spanned by (wo breaks is one of 
the unequal periods in the earth's history and progiesB. The 
distinguished French Geologist computes no less than twenty- 
seven breaks, which have destroyed the existing and living 
Sanrians ; each break approaching lo univeisalily in their 
effects. The earth's crusl is a sepulchre- Its sediments, 
which are ten miles thick, arc fait of '.he relics of plants anrt 
animals. 

5 63. As we are unable then, to compute in years, when 
the present order ot things began, or when the lower orders 
of animals first appeared upon the earth, Sir Charles Lyell 
has proposed to express the simple relations of the past to 
the present, by words adapted to that purpose. Observing> 
for example, that the chalk beds aredeslitnteof any species 
of animals and plants, which now exist, and ihat the succeed- 
ing beds contain them, heiakes his starling point from the 
latter, and attempts lo express their relaliotis to the present, 
by terms of comparison. The mode of proceeding, in order 
to determine the comparative expression was, first lo ascer- 
tair. the whole number of species of fossils in the beds, and 
then ascertain how many are living in ihe seas of the pre- 
sent day. In l830,the number of species known and des- 
cribed in Ihe beds next above Ihe chalk, was I33S. The 
Biimher, since that period, has increased to 5000 at least. 



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Of- fhia lai'ge number, three and a half to four per cent,, are 
living now. The small number, then, ascertained as the 
snrviviog species, which have resisted the change and revo- 
iulions of the globe, indicate an approach to the condi- 
tions which now esist upon the earth's surface, and il has 
been regarded therefore, as the dawn of the present- The 
word Eocene, which means literally the dawn, is applied to 
those bed?, or that formation which has preserved from 
three' and a half to four per cent, of the, species whieh now 
live, it is applied to the lower beds of the tertiary system. 
The beds which are typical ol this part of the system, un- 
derlie Paris and London, and, being basin-shaped, they 
have been called the Paris and London basins. The ffirmer 
was the field in wiiich the celebrated Cuvier labored, whose 
name'and labors have conferred honors upon the French 
nation. But time moves on; and (he next step in the suc- 
ceeding series shows an advance ; ihey contain seventeen 
per cent, cf species or kinds, which live in our present seas. 
The strata containing this per cenlage, repose directly upon, 
the Eocene. As the. proportion of the dead to the living, 
bears still a small ratio to the living, or ts a minor propor- 
tion stilt, of the dead to the living, the formation is called 
Miocene. The rocks which succeed and rest upon the lat- 
ter, are called Pliocene — meaning that the proportion of 
the living is more than the dead. When the per cenlage 
of livino; species is thirty-five and fifty per cent, the terra 
is qualified,' and is called either older or lower Pliocene; 
and, as the per centnge still increases, in the succeeding do. 
posits, and rises as high as ninety-five, the portion of the 
series is denominated newer or nppei- I'leiocene. Certain 
beds which corapuse the Sub-Appenitie hills, and which are 
very thick, and attain an elevation of fifteen hundred feet, 
belong to the latter. It would be interesting here, to illns. 
Irate the slow accumulations of those beds, for the purpose 
of imparting a correct view of the great length of time 
which passed while the beds were being deposited ; but, I 
can only state the fact ; and then proceed to say, that ever 



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since ihe full dawn of the present, beds of immense tliJck- 
neS3 have nccuraulated in a slow manner, filled with marine 
and terrestrial unimals, most of which are ideiiiical wiih 
the present. But it is found on cartful exploration, that 
even in these modem deposiis, one or more epecies out of a 
hnndre(3,-liave become extinct; and that some of the living 
ones have undergone a slight change; some whicJinieqiiila 
EtTial! now, were formerly large. Causes then still operate 
which produce a change in a minor degree, and which 
aller those oliaraclers which are the most snseeptible of the 
influence of physical agents. Those modern deposits, 
which furnish evidences of slight changes, are called Post- 
plioce7ie. 

§ 54. The names, tiie origin, meaning and appliciition of 
which I have given, are subonlinale beds of the ferliary 
system. It has leen separated from llie older upon which 
it repo.sed, because all of its beds or subdivisions contain 
some few species which are not exiinct ; the lowest or old- 
est furjiishing Ihe smallest proportion, yet constant, of aU 
the olhers which succeed ; the newest, the largest jiropor- 
tion; and, as succession is proved by the position cf the bed, 
one above Ihe other, so we may infer that there lias been, 
or was progress also. Thisis shown, by. facts which have 
not been stated, viz : the increase in number and rise in 
rank of the terrestrial tinirnals, which only began to figure 
in the tei liaries. This progress is indicated by the increase 
of those kinds of animals whose pliysical constitutions op- 
proximate very closely to man. 

§ 55. Notwithstanding the plausibility of the arrange- 
ment, and sub divisions of the tertiary beds and Ihe eupho- 
ny of the terms, Encene and Miocene, &c., applied tothem 
respectively, it cannot fail to impress us that it is artificial 
and arbitrary. For this reason, probably, we find it diili- 
ciilt to apply it to the tertiaries of ihp Atlantic CoasL It 
seenis to be more applicable to European tertiaries ; and, it 



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is very possible, that it is because ihey are better hnown 
than oiirs. It is not impossible to apply the .scheme lo our 
for milt ions, when consideretl by themselves; but, we do not 
succeed as yet in fixing the relations which otir terliaries 
bear to those of Europe. It is, however, a popular sclieme, 
and has been adopted by our Geologists and .writers; and 
hence, it will be difficult to replace it by any other, f>ven if 
it should he founded upon characters more natural and less 
arbitrary. 

§ 56. In tliis connexion, ll will not pevhiips be nmis.'S, to 
■explain the word system more fnlly than 1 have yet; though 
its geological meaning will not probably be misapplied. A 
geological system is a series of rocks, forming a subordinate 
part of the earth's crusl, which were formed and consolida- 
ted dui'ing a period when llie physicJil coiidilions were the 
same, or nearly so. As there are many systems, it is im- 
plied in this definition, that the eaith's crust has been sub- 
ject to change; and that the periods are marked, in the be- 
ginning and endintf of these periods, by certain changes 
which they have undergone. We know thein comings and 
ou!-goings of periods, by phenomena visible in the rocks ; 
they are tablets containing the recoids ; and it is a remark- 
able lact, thai the rf cords are not confined to phj sical chan- 
ges ; they also extend to, and embrace, those which concern 
the species of plants and animals of each, 

5 .67. It is agreeable to observation, that a vertical move- 
ment of she rocks is accompanied by a decided change in 
the kinds of animals and plants which had previously lived ; 
they becoming mostiv extinct, while their successors will 
differ from ihem in kind. Now, our definition of a system, 
and the remarks following if, seem to make the vegetable 
and animal kingdoms snboidinafe to the physical or inor- 
ganic kingdom ; in other words, that both are controlled by 
physical forces ; and that these forces heii.g modified in in- 
tensity, are the causes which are insti-umental in destroy- 



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ing the existing kinds ; and, also, of favoring certain spe- 
cial kinds ill the siieceei^ing syslem ; or, tliat the latter are 
consequents of the antecedents referred to. 

The changes of species, resulting, as is supposed, from move- 
ments of the earth^s cnist, will not appear strange, when we 
are informed that ii at once involves a changejinclimale ; a 
change in the h.nmidity and dryness oi the atmosphere ; a 
change as to heat and cold ; all of which exert, upon all 
kinds ofliving matter, importanteffects. Life requires the 
presence of certain elements, as oxygen, carhon, etc, and 
also, an apparatus upon which the elements act.as'the lungs, 
stomach, etc. These must remain, in some form, whatever 
change takes place— But life m.iy continue under an infin- 
ity of modification of apparatus, and we^may suppose, tiiat 
the moilifications of this kind are intended to adapt species 
to the minor conditions of life and their fluctuations aris- 
ing from changes in the earth's crnst. All the important 
and controlling eli3ments stiil in force species of boili king- 
doms live on — the minor changes not affecting life in tlie 
abstract, but only ihe form of the apparatus. Minor fluc- 
tuations aflect only external forms of apparatus ; thp differ- 
ent species are characterized by these modified external 
forms. Tlie origin of species is consistent with changes in 
the position of the earth's crnst, and its relations to water, 
which modify the condition of the atmosphere, the temper- 
ature of the ocean, and its depth. These conspire to modify 
the causes which fit the media, in which organic bodies 
live and move, to execute the functions of life on the best 
and easiest terms. 

Sir Charles has proved ihat the temperature and humidity 
of any given place are modified by proximity to the ocean or to 
waters, and by height; and the creation of new species is 
required to fit them for those alterations consequent on tlis 
change in vertical height, 

i 58, Vertical movements are indicated by breaks in the 
series, which for the most part run in certain directions 



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for great distances. The Appailachian chain of mountains, 
the Blue Ridge, are instances which show a vertical move- 
ment at some former period, accompanied with breaks, or 
fractures of the earth's crust. Both the range and fractures 
are parallel, and extend through many degrees of latitude. 
But many chains traverse the earth's crust; all accompanied 
with breaks of the strata. These pursue different direc- 
tions: and it seems that there is a law involved in these facts: 
for example : those chains which run in the same direction 
were elevated at the same time ; the force beneath, which 
produced the breaks, or whateverthat form may have been, 
operated simultaneously in one direction. The forces have 
been operative continuously, or in paroxysms. When in 
paroxysms, theperiod of activity is short, followed with 
long intervals of repose ; when operative continuously, the 
period of aclivity is long, 'i he paroxysmal modify the 
minor conditions of life speedily ; while the slow scarcely 
produce distinj^uishable effects in the historical era, and 
not at all in the'life of man. 

I see no objections to the foregoing views, the subjection 
of species or life to physical forces and elements; for it does 
not imply that final causes, respecting those forces, had no 
reference to !ife. They precede life in the order of time ; 
but the entire machinery may have been devised, and put 
ill operation, with the sole reference to life which was to 
come, and to give dignity and importance to those forces, 
and to the ar^na upon which liTe, and its attributes, were 
to he displayed. 



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BiiDS AND STRATA BHLONGING TO THE TER- 
TIARY OF THB LOWER COUSTIKS. 

§ Go. The periods represenled by the shell marl beds,, 
or ihe fossiliferotia deposits being included, and except the 
trreen sand, are: — 1st. Post Pliocene; 2d. Pliocene;. 3J. Mio- 
cene; 4lli Eocene ; beneath which, repose the green sariiis, 
which belong to the system known as the cretaceous, or 
chalk or cretaceous system. 

1. Post Pliocenes. — Under this head, I include all thos& 
beds ranging alonj; the,sea margin of the Atlantic slope. 
They consist of isolated beds of the recent oyslere, con- 
taining, also, the more common nioUisca of the coast; but 
the most common' by far,, are the common oyster, (Oslrea 
edulis,) and common clam, (Venus niei ceuaria.) They are 
known as oyster bads. They are usually regarded as col- 
lections and accumulations of sheila by the Indian tribes^ 
formerly occupying the coast. This view may be sustain- 
ed in some instances, — but it often happens, that the accu- 
mulation or beds are too extensive,, and contain, withal, a 
mixture more accordant with that view which ascribes them 
to the operations of nature — which regards them as beds 
made up of individuals which grew upon ihg spots where 
,we now find them, and which have sniTered a vertical 
KiovemGnl which has raised them above the level of the 
ocean. Tha beds occupy the more elevated points, or tho 
rounded eminences ; which, while submerged, were the 
summits of low hills, belowthe agitations of. tho waves.. 
It is needless now to dwell upon the characteristics of 
these beds. They are clearly, and without doubt, to be 
i-efered to the Post Pliocene; and, though they may be 
regarded as possessing the characters of the present species 
now ocri^pying the coast, still, it is not dillicult to fiud in- 



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rjividiiyls whiuh are very large among tliej^coramon. sized 
ones; am:! ihere are even beds, !ill the iudlvidiials of wliicli 
are larger than tliose now living iipoii tlie coaat. Near 
Newbern, beds of very Irirge oysters occur, especially on 
the plantiition of Mr. Pasteur. 

■ It is highly probable, that different beds were elevated, 
at dilferent times ; niid lience ihose farlher inland, all things 
being equal, are older than - ihose immediately upon the 
beach. 

5 61. It may, at firat, appear a slartliiig statement, that 
onr coast is subject to variations ot Isvel, Of ths truth of 
this view, liowever, there can be no doubt; — so numerous 
are the phenomenfi inijicafiiig vertical moveLiieiHs, that it 
has, at many points, becume common belief. 

A subject of so much interest- is vvortlfy o! larther con- 
sideration. I spoke of a vertical movement, as if this com- 
prehended all the facts of the case. This is not so. The 
facts go to show that Ihere are oscillations — that there 
have been both upward and downward movement.?. The 
upward movement is proved by the existence of raised 
beaches of sand and shingle, and beds of oysters and claina 
50 or 75 feet below low water mark. The downward move- 
ment is'proved by the remains of submerged forests, con- 
sisting mostly of the stump of the present pine which grows 
along the coast. This downward movement is fur fronj 
being confined to a few miles ot coast; — it afliscts both 
Sounds their entii'e length. Tbe stumps are now to be 
seen in shore : soma at high water mark ; others at low 
water : and more standing far in, and constaiUly submerged. 
So common are these old stumps, that the fishermen are 
obliged to incur a great e.'tpense in clearing ofl" these sub- 
merged stumps Irom the bottom of both Sounds — as there is 
no fishing ground which is free of them. At the present, it 
is perhaps impossible to determine which way the Sounds are 
movir.g. I am of opinion that there is not a uniformity in 



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this respect ; — llial, while parts may be aclunlly sinking, 
others are rising, or stationary. Tlic street along the wa- 
ter's edge, in Beaufort; was laid out many years ago, and 
marked by cannon, set as posts, deeply in ihe sand, — 
One portion of this street is constantly beneath water now, 
as if there iiad been a change of level since the slreet 
was laid out. 

§ 62. Wiiilo upon the suhject'of change of level of the 
great Sounds, Albemaile and Pamlico, it will not be foreign 
to the subject, to notice the change which has taken place 
in the saltness of the waters of the Sounds. This is not sup- 
posed to arise from a change of level — a subsidence — though 
subsiding is not to be left out ot view. It is attributed 
mainly to the opening of new inlets, by which the ocean's 
waters have a freer communication with the sounds. The 
freshiiess of these waters had become such, that iriarine 
shell-fish had died out; but since the opening of the new 
inlel, the waters are in the act of being peopled again with 
marine animals. We cannot but notice, in these facts, what, 
has taken place in other parts of the world, and other times 
than our own — where many alternations of fresh and salt 
water had occurred, each eontnimng the fossils pectiliar to 
that slate. 

§ 63. ButtoiefurntothePostPliocenedcposits. J remark, 
that they do not contain the bones of extinct land quad- 
rupeds, such as the mastodon, eleptiant, liorse, &c. — that 
is, none have as yet been discovered in them, though 
sought for. It goes to prove that these quadrupeds had 
already become extinct, prior to their formation ; or, I may 
say, the evidence leans strongly that way, when all the 
facts are told. The coast oyster banks are the latest form- 
ations — the newest: — and probably their elevation or re- 
clamition from the oceanic waters has been eifecled in 
times only just anterior to (he historical period. 



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§ 64. There is w!i;U mny be called a deposit upon llie 
bauksof the Roanoke, which is worthy of notice, ibrlhis 
reason: it marlts distinclly the difference of deposits, which 
have'been made in geologicnl lime, from those made in ab-' 
soliiie time. This deposit consists of fresh water shells, and 
contains along with them ihe bones of the turtle, alligator, 
turkey, dog, deer, and those of man ; together with the nide 
utensils common lo the savage slate. It is a baok, one 
fourth of a mile long, and twelve rods wide, and raised 
eight feet above the adjacent plain. The part abounding in 
these remains, is about four feet thick. This notice of a 
formmion is imporlant only as illustrative of the distinction 
between the ancient beds and the modern, containing the 
boijfsof man, together wiih his implements of war, and his 
apparatus for cooking. It is characteristic of ail deposits, 
the world over, which contain Ihe remains of man, blended 
wiih the rtmains of animals, ail of which are iKUV living; 
fti! going to prove that man has not been an inhabjihitu of 
the earth only for a short period; inasmuch, too, as his re- 
mains are found in none of the formations containing es- 
tiiict species ®f either land or marine animals. 

§65. The Post Pliocene beds are co-exieosive with the 
Atlantic coast. 'Ibey am naked beds; or with the sljjiht 
covering of vegetable mould which rarely exceeds eigJiieeu 
inches — usually less I have seen large trees growing over 
the beds ; but, in many places, ihey are naked wastes — a3 
at Nagshead. These wastes are often exposed lo the. 
lurious Northeast winds which sweep over Ihe sands and 
hills, and bear them inland It will be seen, then, that a 
beach is not wholly raised by vertical movements effected 
by a subterranean force. , Upon the Carohiia coast, the 
breakers carry forward the sand ; and, when they flow U|» 
the inclined plane, the sand is spread out with great even- 
iiess,and then left there by the receding or retiring wave. 



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The'wiiid, when strong, sweeps o»ert he dry and loose sandi 
and bears it still fartiier : when it becomes drifting sand. 
The coast gains more ihfln it loses; and not only are (he 
sands brought np, bnt pieces of wrecks of vessels, iron bolts, 
spikes, etc.; and even silver coins, from the sunken wrecks, 
■re sometimes found. A spear or fishing lackle, which is 
lost overboard some 20 of 30 rods out, will be sure to be 
found upon the beach in two or three days. This, perhaps 
will not hnppen on all shores ; but those formed and acted 
upon, like those at Nagshead, favor such a result. 

5 06. pLrocENE. — Anterior to the post pliticene, the beds 
which were deposited, whether in small basins, or in the 
form of irregular belts skirling ihe seashore, or in caverns, 
■where terrestrial remains of extinct quadrupeds are found, 
have received the name pliocene. The pliocene admits of 
a sub-division; and has been desigtjated, according to 
position : the oldest and inferior, as it conlaiiis a larger pro- 
portion of extinct species than living ones, is culled older 
pliocene : — the superiofj which contains fewer extinct than 
living ones, is the newer pliocene. 

Pliocene beds are not unfrequeiit in North-Carolina ;— 
but the beds which I now regard as pliocene, are not fully 
determined as such : as the evident intermixture of fossds 
of pre-existing formations, and ihe present uncertainty of 
the species now living upon the coast, renders the appli- 
cation of the rule of per centage uncertain : And I may- 
go farther, and question whether it is not impracticable to 
draw lines of demarkation between the pliocene and the 
miocene strata, lor the same reasons. 

Following, however, the guides which have preceded me, 

I shall refer certain beds to bolh divisions o( the tertiary . 

the pliocene and miocene — without attempting, however, 
to show to which division of the pliocene any of the marl 
beds belong. 



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5 67". To ihe plincRne, I refer certain beds near Newbera 
— those upi>n the plantation oi Mr. Donnell. To the 
miocene, I refer the beds upon the Tossnol and Liltle Con- 
lentney Creeks, in the tipper part of the valley of the Neuse, 
and between rhe Neuse and Tau rivers. 

In the beds upon ihe Tossnot and Little Contentney, 
I found the ear bones of whales, {cetacea,) probably true 
whales, of the family Balcenidae, and their vertobrEe ; and 
also bones of the inastodtiti; and a species of Orbicula, 
differing from the only recent one I know. Those af Fish- 
ing Creek, a tributary of the Tau, Kiay, qlso, be referred, 
perhaps, to the older pliocene; but not certainly. Those 
of Fishing Creek contain pectens, which are referred to the 
miocene by Mr. Conmd, The mPestigattou requires to 
be continued. 

To the miojene, also, I refer the beds at Rocky Mount, 
Taiiboro', and Goldsboro'. The bones of vertebrated aui- 
mals are found in all of [he beds at the localities, particularly 
those belonging lo the mastodon. We are obliged to refer 
the mastodon g-iganticuin to ths miocene .-—the tooth, or 
poriioii of one I procured at Tossnol is not the foolh of 
the N. Augustidens : — but we have associated, with these 
bones, the large ^cetera.?, P. MACisoNuia, &c. 

The seciion at Tauboro' exhibits the iollowing strata ; — 

1. Sand, at the water's edge. 

2. Chiy, containing lignite. 

3. The shtll marl, with abundance of pectens, 

P. Madisonius, eight feet, contains the 
fossils ; and three or four fet ot clay, 
without fossils. 
4 Sand and gravel intermixed. 

The marl contains coprolites. Rocky Mount furnishes 
a siiiiilar section, with similar fossils, resting on granite. 



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lOO 

Near Newbevn, the beds which have been referred tn as 
pliocene, contain fiilgiir canahciilatLis, and fusus quadriciis. 
talus, (;miocene fossils,) astatle ualica, fissnreiia, calyptrea, 
pectuscuius, &c. ; the iiiraeberh of the other peclens be- 
ing absent. The (ossils ni' ihe Newbern beds, already spo- 
ken of, on the plaiilalior of the Hon. Mr. Don uell, contain a 
large number of shells which 1 am unable to distinguish 
from those of the const, Mr. Ooriiiell's beds; are white, 
loo^e beds with crumbling shells, moce or less chalky, in 
consequence of being above water. The opening is re- 
cent — (he bottom haJ noE been reached. A fragment of 
a bone of the mastodon was found also in this pUce. 

We can scarcely avoid comparing this marl, with its 
accompanying fuspiisj with the eras nf SuHcilk. The re- 
markable display ot Kiiiids, gray, red and brown, embraced in 
these beds, assimilate the mlire (ormatiDii of ihis ogeupun 
our coast to the crags (tf Sitfli)lk, (England,) and the 
fahluns of Tnuraine, in France 

^ tiS Tlie beds of marl, upon the CLtp;--Fear, at Eliza- 
beth ; at Walker's Bhitl ; those of Messrs. Lassaigne, tJio- 
Hiarty, and othtrs, have also been reterrtd to the i 



perio 



Kliziibeih, the strata are various; 



of sand, chiy. with lif;ht sandstone, niail, &c. &c., teniiin 
aling with colored sands, us follows: 

1. Sands Ht the bottom of the elilf; gray and 

thin seairiij of clay, and some lignite. 

2. Bluish and sandy ir.arl, pyritoiis. 

3. Thin bids of coprolites, pebbles mixed 

with shells and sand. 

4. Consolidated sand, with fossils, area. 

5. Mar!, three or four feel thick. 

6. Ferruginous sand, with diverse slratifi- 

cation. 

7. Blue clay. 



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101 

8. Surface sands, of various colors, twenty- 

five feet. 

9. Betwcpn ihe clay and surface, samp red 

conglomerate of Fayettevilie. It thiiis 
out before it renches Elizabeth, being the 
siiiface sand, which is very thick in Ihe 
pine forests, and rests upon tiio thin stra- 
tum of blue clay. 

It is probable that the marl rests upon the upper eucene. 
The changes from Ihe sands below, the rolled pebbles and 
coprolites at the bottom of the marl, indicate a change, and 
show the propriety of Reparalin^ the upper from the lower 
beds of the bluil or bank. The beds of Elizabeth, Bladen 
County, abound in teeth ot placoid fishes — a single tooth 
of chacharodon meijalodoii, saurian teeth, and a middle 
portiriii of thigh bone of a large sanrian But, as the teeth 
and bones are more abundant among the rounded stone, 
it looks highly probable that they may have been derived 
from some older rock. 

i 69. At Brown's Landing, the h-A of marl in the bank 
contains fossils of the same kind as at EiiKabeth and Wal- 
ker's Biiiff; and also contains many individuals of ihe 
exogyra costala, a fossil regarded as characteristic of Ihe 
green sand, (cretaceous.) These individuals are in a fine 
state of preservaiion — snme large, and others small — but 
none of them have been rolled on a beach. Boiii valves 
are together, and the fossil is in a perfect condition. No 
beienmite. an almost con^rant associate, h;is as yet been 
tound al this place. NotiA-ithsiandina: the presence of -.ha 
exogyra, I am disposed lo regaid this bed,, as well as those 
above, as mioceoe; on the ground Ihat lliese beds are de- 
rived from the green sand. This view issupported by Ihe 
fact, that one fourlh of ihe bed is made up of the particles 
of this creiaceons rock. In the same position I place tlie 
marl of IWr. McDowell, one mile troni Biown's Landing. 



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102 

the marl of Miss Andress, whsre ihc exogyra abounds, 
botli younff and old, associated with an oHva. ideiilical' 
1 believe, with ihe one livini; on our coast, near the Fort 
at Smithville. 

5 70. Wliateve! may be the result of inquines respecting 
the age of the shell marl deposits, it is plain that the only 
mode by which snti^factoiy results can be reached, is, by 
a copious collection from all the beds ; and, from -the coast, 
ol ail living species. This should be undertaken ; — for the 
questions are involved in obscurity and donbt ; and although 
this course does not appear to advance the economical 
objects of (he Survey, still, it usually turns out, that what 
appears, at first, only a scientific interest, does, in the end, 
promote, also, the practical application of the facts discov- 
ered, or already known. 

The majority of the shell marls of North-Carolina are 
referred to themiocene period, bjf Professor Mitchell — who 
is sustained by Mr. Conrad, of Philadelphia. Those of ihia 
subdivision of the tertiary, which are far inland, as those 
at Elizabeth, coniain very few, if any, of the moinsca of- 
the green sand, and, perhaps, very few of the eocene; while 
farther below, as at Brown's Landing, the lower fossils are 
very common, and they appear as much at home there as 
any of their associates.. It is probable, then, that this oc- 
currence is due to the proximity of the beds to which they 
belong. It should be observed, that these deposits of shell 
marl are in banks — which does not favor the view gener- 
ally entertained that Ihey reposed ifi and upon the strata 
upon which they lived and died- They seem, rather, to 
be beds farmed by the action of waves, which have piled 
them together in great disorder— though .hey are not 
water worn. 

^ 7l EoctNE — The lowest, or oldest bed, which I am 
able to refer to this formation, consists of pebbles rounded 
by attrition. They are beds from fifteen to twenty feet 



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108 

thick ; and, at their western outcrop, form rounded hills, 
as at and in the vicinity of Carthage, in Mooie County. 

Similar beds and eminences traverse the State. In she 
vallies of the Roanoke and Dan rivers, the^ ex!end heyond 
Leaksville. They overlap the pyrcicryslaMine rocks, lh« 
graniles, and gold slates, lying heyond the fossiliferous 
beds, which succeed them in the ascenr'ing order. 

The extension, eagtwardly, towards the coast, cannot 
be marked or determined very salisfactonly. Thin beds 
of rounded pebbles are known benealh (he fossiliferous beds > 
but nothing interesting has been elicitsd concerning ihem. 
The pebbles are pure quartz ; derived from the quarlz 
veins of the gold slates In many places, the pebbles are 
cemented together by iron ; — the coarser and finer sands 
are also cemented, forming a pudding stone. These 
cemented masses have laken various imitative lorms : — as 
tubes, balls, cups, &c. The quantity of iron investing the 
clay and sand is sufficiently large lo pay for extracting it 
for working. It olten furnishes good iJmonile. The 
origin of tie cemented beds must be due to ierruginous 
springs, which have ceased lo flow; but which bring up 
the carbonated oxyde, and flowing subsequently through 
and over the beds, have filled the interstices with ferrugin- 
ous matter. This, adhering strongly lo tiie stones and 
sand, by this means has formed, finally, a pudding stone, 
by cementation.* The ancient beds, which consist of 
rounded stones and coarse gravel, with only obscure lines 
of Btratificalion, are called shingle beds. They mark the 
beginning of a new order of things ; and, hence, are impor- 
tant, as a means for defining the boundaries of systems or 
formations. 



The tetm pudding stone has long been in use; and I 
apply the word to cemented masses fornjed above water; 
while the term cong-Zonierc/ie is appli. d to thosa cemented 
masses, or cohering pebbles, which have been Ibrmed be- 
neath the water. 



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104 

Thin beds should never be regarded as similar, in their 
origin, to norther drift, or transported rocks, or transport- 
ed gravels and sand ; at least, in the mode in which mate- 
rials, which have the same form, at the iXorth, have been 
transported. There is not a boulder or a drift bed in 
North- Carolina. The masses which have been moved in 
this and other Southern States have been by means ot 
rivers and oceanic waves — those means which exist now, 
and are in operation under our ejes. 

But, to return to ihc ancient shingle beaches — I observe 
that they I'orm ihe outer rim of all the teriiary deposiis — a 
rim which, it is true, may be interrupted in places; but 
they range in a line, and cross the IStale to th'i westward 
of the first fail of the principal rivers which drain the 
Atlantic slope, 

§ 72. The beds which succeed the former, are clays 
and sands of a greenish color, cherty clays and marls, to- 
gether with interrupted beds of consolidated mar!. The 
latter assumes the condition of a porous rock, sufRcienily 
hard to form a building stone. It is an impure limestone — 
carbonate of lime forms about ihree-fourths of the rock. 
Soft marl underlies ihe rock. 

The thxkness of all' the beds which I now regard as 
eocive, is not well determined — the limestone, or upper 
part of it, is only five, six. and perhaps ten feet, in some 
places. At Col. Collier's plautaiion, near Goldsboro', ■! is 
only five or six f--et. The lithological characiers vary 
very much at diflerent points; and sandy beds are replaced 
by cherty ones, or ihe cheriy ciay,s and limestone. 

At Wilmington the rock is exticinely tough and hard — 
though porous It is highly silicious. Beneath litis, is a 
sotter porlion. made lip of carbonate of lime, which is in- 
termixed with broken and rolled coproliles; foni>ii>g a 
conglomerate, 'f'his portion of it is highly valuable as a 
fertilizer, and has been employed as such by Dr. Togno. 



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105 

at his vineyard near Wilmington, Thia gentleman's en- 
teiprise is one of great importance; and the results of his 
experiments will be, (o throw li^h!, not only on Ihe marls 
as feriiJizers. but upon ihe vine and other fruits which will 
bear cultivation in ihis State. 

5 73. At Wilmington, the fossils consist of scutiilce 
royersi; one or two species of echinodens ; teeth of the 
genus charcharodon sulci ieris, galeocerda pristodontus- 
larnna elegans, &c. — the latter of whi;h arc by far the most 
nnmeroHS, The teeth ot sharks, which are so numerous, 
and of which [ procured many species, lie in greater num- 
bers at the bottom of the higher and newer deposits. 
They should be regarded here as characteristic only of 
the oldest formations in which they are found. Their 
hardness and form favors very much this removal from the 
older to the newer rocks, wherever the latter derive a por- 
tion of their materials from the former. 

5 74, Some of the eocene, as well as the miocene, beds, 
contain numerous bones; — Ihese are generally broken — 
even the thickest are broken to pieces, some six or eight 
inches in length; — thus > Iha femur of a saurian, one 
and a half inches in diamater, was broken into three 
pieces — the ribs of a whale into pieces about eight inches 
long. In these fractures, we observe the spicula of bone, 
stii! sharp, and never rounded or worn. These fragments 
are found embedded with delicate unbroken shells — a fact 
which throws considerable obscurity upon the causes 
which have broken them ; — for it does not appear, from 
any phenomena, that these beds are subjected to a disturb- 
ance, or to a fiirce, since deposited in the beds in which 
tliBv now repo.fe, which could possibly break such sir(nig 
bones into such short pieces; especially when delicate 
sht'lis are presentpd entire. And it does not appear that 
they fmve been subJFjcted to attrition, — to the action of 
waves or stones. 



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10& 

§ 75. It has been generally supposed, that the bones of 
the wliale, and mastodon, are found in the saperficial cov- 
erings, — in those beds which are of the same Bge with 
those at the Norih. 

Now, the mastodon is fonnd in the fresh waier marl of 
New York, and other localities ; or in beds which repose 
upon thai stratum called drijt; and which is entirely 
wantiiig here. But, in North Carolina, they are fonnd in 
the miocene. or older pliocene. The species of rnaslodon 
seems to be the one which is Jonnd in New York. 

The question comes up, are these Southern beds of the 
same age with the fresh water marl beds of the Noi-th? 

The latter are regarded as post phocene. The bones of 
the horse and deer are also found in the same beds wilh 
the mastodon, and belong to the same age. I procured 
a grinder of the horse, at Greenville, in the sandy siralii, 
just above the miocene marl. All the exlhict deer and 
oxen, in New York, are found, also, in the fresh water 
marls; associated with the fresh water shells; the species 
of which are now living in our lakes and ponds; — and 
yet, the quadrupeds, in both formations — one in the South, 
the other in the North — are all entirely exlinct. 

If it should turn oul, that the mastodon in the North 
Carolina marls is a species, specifically different from that 
of the iresh water marls of the North, the case would not 
involve the question of comparative age of the beds in which 
they occur. If the species are the same, it is difKcult to 
reconcile the fact with the present views of Geologists upon 
that subject ; the age of deposits as deduced from their los- 
sils. 

§ 1C^. It is impiissthte to define at ibis time, the limits of 
the eocene beds It is difficult to sub-divide the fcrmaiion 
clearly, though it appears, that, it admits of the same di- 
vision, as in Alabama aad Mississippi— the cherly portion 
beneath, and the consolidated marl, or the marl stone above. 
But this part furnishes very few fossils. There is still a 



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107 

mass, quite sandy, similar in outward appearance to the 
green sand, wliicli forms a feature, which siiould not be 
overlooked, in makirtg the natural division of the strata. 
For agricultural purposes, the best beds are the marl stones ; 
or those immediately beneath, which are sprinkled with 
fragments of coprolites. When first removed from their 
beds, they are soft, and easily crushed. When they have 
been exposed to the atmosphere, and have lost their wa.ier, 
thej become hard, and crush with difficulty. They may 
perhaps answer a good purpose in building and construc- 
tion . 



THE GREEIM SAND AND ITS GEOLOGICAL RE- 
LATION. 

5 77. A substance which is well known to every person, 
in the form and under the name of chalk, is a rock which 
has given Ihe name to the system, of which the green sand 
is a member. But the chalk itself does not exist in the 
TJuiled Stales. And ihe system, to which the green sand 
belongs, has its principal representative, in the inferior or 
oldest deposits. While no trus chalk is found in the United 
Stales, posFessiiig the characters of the writing chalk of 
Europe, there are still deposits, which nearly correspond 
in age, wiih it. This view is supported by the numerous 
fossils, which ceriain beds contain, identical with those of 
the chalk of Europe. 



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Ids 

This formation' is very extensive in the United States. 
From New-Jersey, South, to Alabama, it is one of the most 
coniinuous deposits. 

In North-Carolina, it is concealed by the soil, except in 
favored positions. Upon the Cape-Fear, and ils tribularies, 
it is probably better exposed, and more accessible, than at 
any point, known to me, fariher North. 

It consists of a series of beds, mostly sandy, aUernating 
wilh afew inconsiderable beds of argillaceous sand, colored 
with chloritine matter. There are beds along the green 
sao ly formation, which are calcareous, and which I now 
chiss with the eocene; but which may hereafter lurnish 
facts, which will place those calcareous beds in the creta- 
ceous system. These calciireous berfs, however, are desti- 
tute of many, if not ail, the characieiislic fossils of , the 
green sand, or cretaceous system, unless the single species 
of ammonite should prove to be one of them; though, I 
believe it \vi\[ constitute a new species. 

i 78. The green sand beds are not distinguishable 
from the eocene, by the presenceof ihe green matter, which 
has given it this nauie, as it is, also, quite common in the 
overlying beds. I'his formalion is beneath the shell marl, 
which contains those large scollops, and generally with 
beds, which are composed of aggregations of shells, closely 
resembling those living bordering on the Atlantic. The 
beds, of green sand m^ty, however, be known by the 
presence of a cylindrical fossi!, of a yellowish color, and 
which is 3 inches or more in leMt;th, and tapering to a con- 
ical point at one end. When unbroken, it has a conical 
ca/'ty at the orher e^id. It is called by sjms a thunder 
boit [ts name is bdemnite It occurs upon ihe Cape 
Fe ir, at Sykes' landing. soo)e distance below Black Rock, 
aii^i it should he (oimd at the latter place also. Another 
fossil which is very common is the exogyra costata. It 
is something like a think rounded oyster shell. 'I his is 
sibiuidant at Black Rock. 



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109 

1 do not attempt, at this time, lo speak of the extent or dis- 
tribution of this form itinn or its thickness. But, I wish it 
should be known, thai it is an important rock; that it is one 
ofthe best fertilizers, among the mineral manures. T have 
spoken of the loculiiy at Black Rock, as easy of aciess, and 
probably, other places below may ha equally so. It was, 
in connection with rocks of this siae, that beds, rich in 
phosphate of lime, were discovered in Enghmd, onl> a 
few ysars since, which have been a source of immense 
prolit, to the proprietors or owners. 

This formation extends Sonth of Wilmington, more ihiin 
twenty miles; bm, generally, lieaconseiiltd beneath a thi.:k 
covering of sand aai clay, and vegetable debris At Rocky 
Hill, it has been known ior many ye^^ra Nine miles from 
Wilmington, upon the Railroad, thegieen sand is twenty 
feet from the suvlace. Where the strata of green sand, ^re 
exposed, in a vertical seclinn, the surface is worn into upi- 
dulatiotis; and exhibits in consequence of the wearing iic- 
lion of water, which has passed over, rounded ridges, alier- 
nating regularly, with depressions. Several in success! m 
occ<ir upon Dr. Togno's plaiitalion three miles North of 
Wilmington. 

As yet, the inferior part of this rock has not been opened 
in this State. It rests probably upon the granite ; hut 
what composes the lower muss is unknown. It may yet 
turn out, that the mass of pebbles, which border the series 
of tertiary, upon the west, pass beneath (he green sand, and 
belong to it, rather than to the eocene, where i have placed 



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CONCLUDING REMARKS UPON THE AGRICUL- 
TURE OP THE LOWfclR COUNTIES. 

While a bovintifLil use ol manures is one of the main 
inslrnmcnts of success, in asjricultiire, there are others, 
which cantint he left unemployed The remainder may be 
comprised, under the head of tillage. Proper tillage is 
necessary, to prepare the way, for the action of manures. 
When the plow has not broken the turf, or the harrowr 
pulverized and leveled the surface, these fertilizers are 
left, comparatively, inert. When ihe land is heavy and 
impervious, the roots of plants remain unsupplied with 
niilriment. Where the hoe is neglected, weeds will choke 
the corn and cotton, and consume the nutriment. Where 
water stands upon the surface, then, the corn is dwarfed 
and yellowed by cold. Tillage, then, consists in the use of 
the plough, the harrow, the roller, and the hoe, and cultiva- 
tor. — The drain comes in, to cotiiplece the work of a per- 
fect system of tillage. That mates the other modes effec- 
tual and perfect. I might dwell upon each instrument of 
Ullage, and point out the nature and effect of each oper- 
ation — but I choose, now, to limit my remarks, to ike 
draining of soils. 



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DRAINING. 



The experience uf the most intelligent of t!ie agriciii- 
tiirai profession, in this country, and in Europe, is highly- 
favorable to draining. Supported as this agricultural 
measure is by experience, and susiained by chemical and 
physical principles, it seems to me, that one word should 
be said, in recommending the practice, lo farmers of Norih 
Carolina. I have no reterence here, to the swamp lands 
of the Slate, or wet lands generally ; there can Iib biil one 
opinion,as to the necessltyof drainingsuch lands, any whi ' 
But my remarks are intended for those uplands, and mea. 
dows, which aie alwayi in a condition to be cuIliTated 
those from which the farmer has taken both corn, hay and 
cotton, and which do not prefent any very remarkable m 
cessity of the measure to the eye ; unless it be a preserv; 
lion of surface water for many days after a rain or showers, 
Leaving out of view the sandy lands of the Atlantic slope, 
it will be fotmd that there is, in all the red soils of the Slate, 
a very strong affiuity for water; — or. what is better ex- 
pressed when 1 say, that it holds water too long in the 
Spring. The effect of this fact is to delay the Spring 
work; — to postpone the time when it may be plowed and 
planted. This is an important matter; for I think 1 shall 
be, and am, in fact, sustained in the position, that a good 
harvest is generally dependent upon early pianiing. It 
may be called in question in the South, where long seasons 
are the order of the day ; but, when it is considered that 
all plants obey the seasons, and acquire habits from the 
impress of the seasons, the rule will hold good for (he South 
as well as the North : — that more may be expected from 
early, than late planting. The obstacle in the way is the 
condition of the soil; — it is wet, and, therefore, cold. It 



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112 

'snot so much that the genial warmth of ihe sun Is want' 
ing ; but this warmth Ims to be expended, first, ii> evapora- 
ting a superabundance of water, or in drying ihe surffice, 
Kow, if ihis water, which keeps ihe surface f,o\d, is allowed 
to dram through the soil, and to be carried off by drains, 
the genial warm.h of the sun adminisiers, at once, io the 
end so much wished, the immediate warming of ihe soil. 
The principle is obvious and well settled. The applicalion 
which 1 wish to make, ia, to tlie lands which are regartled 
as tillable, and capable of producing very good returns ; but, 
after all, they do not "jive those returns which the labor 
expended seems to demaad. 

I design, in these remarks, to cflll the attention of planters 
lo the question of drainiuif. and then leave the matter for 
vheir consideration. I state the object to be, to secui'e an 
early planting ; though the beuefiis derived are not confiiied 
to that single result. The plantpr may experiiuerit upon one 
acre. Drain itne acre well ; and then compare the con- 
dition of the soil of that acre, in April, with an undraioeii 
acre adjacent to it. 

Wln'n I speak ol' draining. I have no reference lo open 
diiches; — not that they are wiihoiU t eir advaiiUiaes. 
0pen dilclies, upon the slopes of many pl:tntations, woul^ 
be ruinous. I mean, by ditching, a tiiree foot drain laid in 
tile or stone, and covered. A drain, properly laid, will not 
wash, or be undermined ; — indeed, ihey will save the sur- 
face fr'im gullies, and those dead patches, too common in 
the South. 



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COAL FIELDS OF NORTH CAROLINA, 



^ 'iS. Various opinions h:ive been expressed concerning 
the Coal Fields of this State. Some, whose opinions are 
entitled to respect, speak unfavorably of their value and 
iniporiance. t)lher«, on the contrary, entertain a high 
ojiinion of their value Parties entertaining these discord- 
ant opinions have not emhrnced ihem without facts which 
favor their own views, respectively. 

Hence, when it became my d(?ty lo enter upon an 
. exnininalion, as the Geologist of the tilate, from whom it 
was expected that the questions at issue wonld undergo a 
careful sorntiny, I determined, therefore, to put those 
questions lo a sJrict lest. Il appeared to me that the first 
point to be established was, that the series of rocks in which 
coal was known lo exist, acinally form, of themselves, such 
a succession of rocks as lo entitle them to the rank of 
the regular Ciial-banring deposits, analogous, ai least, to 
what has betn determined in oiher fields, where coal con- 
stitutes a part of the series themselves. 

To determine thia single poinl, required a detailed examin- 
ation of all the members of the group, — especially, of (hose 
deposited in the immediate proximity of the coal itself. It 
is, however, never expected ihat every member of a group 
will be present in all localities ; or that they will, if f 



characters as to color, lliickness, mineral 



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114 

composition, &c. Still, certain characterislicB wiii be found 
m common ; and their delerminiition became the first subject 
for examination. 

In order that my readers may be put in the way of form- 
ing opinions for themselves, I propose, first, to speak of the 
common cbaracleristics of a coal field ; what rocks belong to 
a coal field ; and what position they occupy ; and what 
fossils they should furnish. 

The coal fields of our own counlry are m;ide up of (he 
following succession of rocks :— 

1. Limestone, called the carboniferous lime- 
stone ; — variable, however, and not always 
present, 

2. Conglomerates ; — made up of rounded peb- 
bles, interslralified, it may be, with coavae 
and fiae sands. 

3. Sandstone, of various colors and degrees 
of fineness- 

4. Black slates ; or slates of various colors. 

5. Fire clay and coat. 

6. Argillaceous oxyde and ciirbonate of iron ; 
variable in quantify ; generally nodular. 

7. Sandstones, and repetitions of the foregoing 
rocks. 

The (hickneas which the series alfain is variable ;— in 
some it exceeds 14,000 feet. 

% 79. Theposition,inlhegenemlserie9 of thecoaUbearing 
rocks, is above what is known as Davonian, and extendi 
upwards to those known as the Oolite rocks, including ihc 
latter. They occupy a position not far from the middle 
of the series of sediiitcnis, or hydroplastic rocks, — the water- 
formed or water-moulded rocks. There seemed to have 
been a period fitted lo the production of those plants which 
form the coal itself. 



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115 

Observation sustaitia the view now prevalent among Geol- 
ogisls, ihat this middle period furnishes the best workable 
beds ; and that, neither below, nor above, though the sedi- 
ments are very (hick, do !hey bear coal. This conclusion, 
I have said, ie the result of observation, exteiided over all the 
accessible portions of the earth's crust. We do not assign a 
cause. li %t the fact, which is important. Siili, (he fact, 
Itself, implies that the condition of the atmosphere, its tem- 
ppiatuie and humidity, favored the production of vegetables 
of iho^e knid5 ; and in sufficient abundance to give o/igin 
to ihc coal 

More than half a century has elapsed since attention has 
b'cn given to the coal-bearing rocks; and no nBW country 
has been vi'sHed, but the subject has received atiention. The 
time has passed by when persons who have studied the 
subject require to be enlightened upon the questions con 
cerning the coal rocks. 

What I wish to inculcate, is, that the position which these 
rocks occupy is not theoreCical ; but has been determined 
by observations, extended over a large portion of ihe earth's 
crust. The Siberian rocks, for example, are found in Ame- 
rica, England, and Russia ; but they furnish no coal. — 
So it may be said of (he Devonian, wliich is found in these 
and other countries ; and yet no coal is found in this 
system. 

^ SO, The thickness of all the systems of coal-bearing 
rocks is great. Room and space are thereby given for con- 
taining coal ; and time, also, for ihe growth of the material 
which is 10 be converted into con!. The series in Pennsyl- 
vania are several thousand feet thick. 

The Geological position of the coal-bearing rocks of this 
State is another point which required attention. As it is 
conceded that they are not of the age of the Pennsylvania 
coal rocks, we have to look about for those whicii we may 
satisfy ourselves are of (he same age as those in this Slate, 



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and which have been proved to conlain a, large supply of 
coal. We are not left without examples in point, and which 
esuiblish an important fact, that rocks newer than those 
retcifed to are coal-bearing. I allude to those of the Rich- 
mond coal field ; which have been shown, by Professor 
William B. Rodgers, to be of the age of the Lias,— of an age 
ne.ver than the rocks of Pennsylvania, 

^ 81. This coal-field, (hough ly no means exiensive, 
whfn compared with the older, to which allusion his been 
mjule, has been productive and piofitable ind futnihiiea 
seams »which are remarkable for iheir thickne''s — a seam, for 
ex[*iiip!e, which is no less than forty feet thick 

I Uo not regard this great thickness as a fivoiable featme , 
bui, as an exaiihple of the nccumiil ilion of vegetable matfei , 
in this period, which proves a geological fact of great con'fc 
quejicCj — (he adapiednessof the climate of thib peiiod to p o 
duceihe material which has been changed into coal. 

We have, in the periods prior to the coal of the Upper Appa- 
lachian rocks, negative prool that the cUmate was not adapted 
to siicli results ; — for ihey contain no coal. But, as we ap- 
proach the carbouiferous system, we see signs of preparation ; 
phinia appear, which were allied to those which characterised 
the coal period. These increase, till, finally, !hey reach 
the maximum,, in point of numbers, in this particular period, 
when we find all the neceseary m.iterials and circun is lances 
for the foimation of coal ; and it is not until we reach the 
rocks called carboniferous, that it is found. 

Which succeed the latter? — or which can bo provca to 
hevB been deposited during the subsequent periods "^ 

Again 5— the coal-bearing rocks, as they occupy the ame 
relaiive position, and the same relations as to lime naj be 
supposed to contain a peculiar class of plants, and of 1 iils 
ASi ihis is true ; and it is as much expected (o flnl ce tiin 
phiiils and animals, in this series, as to find the sandstones 



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U7 

and slatea. These facts are well known by miners, who 
are well informed ; and they avail themselves of (he facta 
to guide their exammations. 

These facts are so constant, that capitalisls do not hesitate 
to invest money where the ciiaracteiistics of a coal-field have 
been determined. 

The Appalachian coal-fields, of which the S.aie of Pesm- 
eylvania forms a part, are about nine hundred miles long, 
and about two hirndred miles wide ; an.d yet, throughout 
this great extent of territory, the general characteristics are 
found the same. And the same may be said of the Illinois 
and Michigan coai-fields. 

^ 82- AW, tlie application of (bese facts to the coal-ficlda 
of Nonh Carolina. The members composing the series, in 
which coal is known to exist, may be arranged aa follows : — 

1. Conglomerate, made up of rounded pebbles 
of quartz, and other hard rocksj united and 
held together, in the condition of a rock. 

3. Sandstones, of different colors, mostly red, 
of various degrees of fineness. 

3. Slate ; biack, and green, and mottled. 

4. Fire-clay and coal. 

5. Argillaceous oxyde and carbonate of iron, 
in nodules. 

7. A succession of the series ; and finally ter- 
minating in heavy beds, and olive-colored 
sandstones. 

In the foregoing Bevies, we find, on comparison, an agree- 
ment with those of other coal-fields^lhe conglomerate, the 
sandstone, shales, fire-clay, and nodules, of argillacepus-oxydc 
of iron. All of which, when put iogclher, render it probable 
that the seiies actually form a coal-field ;— or a series, whicl* 
are truly carboniferous, or coid-beajing rocks. 



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118 

The members, (hen, which may be regiirded os common — 
and, indeed, essential, lo a coal bearing series, — are present 
in ihe North Carolina formalion ; — but, in order (o j^ive just 
confidence in ihem, I do not deem it necessary lo prove iliat 
they areof (he same age as the Richmond coal-fields. It miiy 
be, that the Richmond leds are not of Ihe age of ihe lower 
Oolite ; i( muy be, that ihey belong to Ihe Permian, or 
Netv Bed. 

All Ihe fields furnish one or two fossils in common — a kind 
of proof which is of some value, as fur as it goes. 

The question which 1 aiiempied lo solve, in a way wiiioh 
may be regarded as independent of an acliiai expioraiion of 
the cotil-seams, was decidrid favorably; — all ihe facia going 
to prnve a distinct coal series ; iliough not of ibe age of the 
Pennsylvania coal ; but belonging to one during which coal 
has been abnndanfly produced. 

So, when ihe inquiry is taken up, in detiiil, though slill 
pm'suing a mode independent of ihe facts accompanying ihe 
known scams themselves, we shall come to the same results. 
The slates, the fire-clay, iron, and the fossils, all point to the 
existence of coal. 



§ S3. Probably more money lias been wasied in Fearthing 
for coal, ihan any other mineral. It is no uncommon ihin^ 
for foreign miners, who have just skill enough to lake down 
a breast of ore, to induce ihe expenditme of capiial in sink- 
ing shafts, in any black ilate, wilhonl ihe least regaitt to ihe 
presence of coa< The consequence has been, ihat all the 
money expended in ihe opeiiUion has been lost. In New 
York, it lias been one of ibe mo-t common mining failures. 
Wherever black slaie appears, il is perforaied, somewhere, 
wilh a shaft in search of coal. All these explorations, in thai 
Stale, have been in the Siberiiin syslem, below the coal- 
bearing rocks. One of Ihe great benefits of *(he New York 
Survey, was, llie deierminadon that there was no coal there ; 



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119 

and i( has put a slop to the useless expenditure of money in 
this way. Ail these mistakes and enoie were committed 
from iiiEitteniion lo tiie special and general ctiaracterislics of 
a coal-fii !d. 



GENERAL OBSERVATIONS ON THE DEEP RIVER 
COAI, FIELD. 



§ 84, The Deep River coal field le in the form of a trough ! 
The inferior rocks extend fiirlher than the superioi. They 
rnay be regarded as beginning in Granville County, in a 
wedge-form, or pointed masB. The norihwfst and weet 
oulctop runs, at firsl, west of south ; and passes through a 
part of Wake, and sends op u short arm to within three miles 
of Chape! Hill. 

The diteclion of the outcrop has gradually changed to 
south, 50° west. This direction is very nearly preset ved (o 
the South Carolina lino. The outcrop is about six miles 
w«stof Carthage. 

In this coal-field, (he uplift has been made upon the north- 
west side. lis line of demarkulioii is distinct ; — while, upon 
Ihe southeast side, iherc is no outcrop. Al! that is in view, 
is, Ihe superior rocks, still dipping sout.hwcst, — iheir lower 
edges heing concealed henoath a thick mass of soil. 



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120 

The dip is slightly variable ; — being, on the south side of 
Beep B-iver, south 60° east. North of the river, it is south 
50° east. At the easterly end, at FarmviJle, «ouih 10° west. 
At Hornsville, south 45° west Thesp last were taken fiom 
the coal-slates, where a chantjp has taken place, which is 
due to the position of the outer and eoster'j edge of the 
trough, as it is turning westwardly , and where the uplifting 
forces have acted upon the olhej yde the angle of dip 
varies from 10°, in the iippei siratd of the sandstone, to 
25° in the inferior beds ; and may, probibly exceed 30°, 
at some points of the outer edge, near tht rocks upon which 
they repose. 

The lithologiciil characters of the whole sjstem fuinish 
considerable varie(y. But they may be classed is. conglom 
erates; sandstones, soft and hard, grey, red and ■niiegaled, 
or mottled ; and green and black slates ; with certtin subor 
dinate beds. 

The eoal seams of Deep River may be described, under 
three grand divisions, proceeding from the inferior, to the 
superior beds. 

1. Inferior conglomerates, and sandstones, 

below the green and black slates. 

2. Black slates, with iheir subordinate beds 

and seams. 

3. Sandstones, soft and hard, with the free- 

stones, gnndstoiie grits, and superior 
conglomerates. 

§ 85. The lowest and oldest, as appears Irom ihe Ibre- 
aoing subdivisions, is a on glome rate. It is formed of 
rounded quartx pebbles, derived from the neighboring rocks, 
tlie gold slates; and conliiins the entire series of minerHls, 
which they conlain. The most conspicuous part ot the 
conglomerate isqnariz. This miners! is rounded by attri. 
tion.nndoccnrs in ova! masses, rarely spherical, standing out 
of iherocli, in strong relief. These pebbles 



Tc5i^Il» 



121 

cess of time, become consolidated, wilhoiit the aid of any 
cementing substance, and they are so strongly held together, 
thai in breaking Ibe rook, tbey are broken through, with- 
out being broken out, orlooseneii from their b''ds. 

The origin ot these pebbles is evidently in the slates, 
niid from the quartz seams in the slates. This rock being 
schistose, and largely intermixed with talc and mica, and 
frequently thoroiighiy impregnated with pyrites, is subject 
both to disinlegfQiion and decomposition. The quartz by 
these processes is set free, or disengaged from its matrix — 
When exposed to I he action of waves upon a beach, it is 
rounded, and while siill in their beds are subjected to pres- 
sure which results in the formation of ihis interesting and 
curious rock. 

^ 8fi. The conglomerates, in their best and perfect forms, 
are free from soft interstratified mailer, which would dimin- 
ish their solidity, and hence, the mass is exceedingly well 
adapted for grinding corn, when properly prepared. The 
beds are two feet, and sometimes three feet (hick. The su- 
perior are less solid or consolidated ; the lower, in their 
lithological characters, are (he perfect millstone grits of geol- 
ogists. Between the thick bedded masses, there mtervencs 
thinner and less perfect layers, composed of finer materials. 
These are perishable, and are unsuited to the purposes to 
which the harder are applied. 

The colors nrc gray, brown, and red ; generally, the con- 
glomerates ore gray. They have notfurnishedfoBsiIs,except 
lignite, which sometimes has been foimd near these lower 
masses ; but even this is never found, except in ihc softsr 
portions. 

The whole thickness of the inferior conglomerales do not 
probably exceed sixty feel. As a whole, the mass is made up 
of rounded pubbles in beds of variable thickness, and separ- 
ated by finer and softer varieties. 

This mass rests immediately upon the stratified pyrocrya- 
talline rocks, — ihelalcosc slates, hornblende, gneiss with t! si ^i^ 
subordinate beds, and veins of quartz. They rest upon the 



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123 

edges of the inferior and otder rocks — which proves, that the 
inferior had been elevated moreor less, prior to lUe depDsilion 
of ihis system, and sufficiently to raise ap their edges upon 
which the conigio me rales rest. 

^ 87. The sandsiones succeed the conglomerates, in the 
asct^nding order. Thev consist of varioiisiy colored strata, 
red, gray, and olive. Their texture is not uniform. Exten- 
sive beds are made np of the softest of materials, and hence, 
are constantly undergoing decomposition, and frequently, it 
is difficnU to distinguish the rock from that which has already 
become soil. 

The descnpoon of a seiiea of beds wilt give a better idea 
of these sandstones, considered as parts of a great forinalioQj 
than I can convey by any oiher mode. The following sec- 
tion of the lower sandstone extends North, from Evans' 
bridge, about three mites, lo its junction, 'Aiih the inferior 
rocks, 

1. The inferior conglomerate is conEealed by 

Boi], 

2. Sandstone which may be called a hard free- 

stone, dark brown. Near (his mass, and 
lo the North, the gold slates appear, which 
are inierelraiified with hard green povphy- 
iles, alternating wiib line lalcose states. 

3. Thick bedded brown sandsiones, but softer 

than the preceeding. 

4. Gray sandatones or freestones, in which 

some beds form the grindstone grit. 
6. Hard red sandstone. 

6. Soft red sandstone, forming a mass, frequent- 

ly called red marl, but improperly. 

7. Gray and olive green sandstones. 

§ 88. The series, then, which succeed ihe conglomerates 
are made up, as 1 have already observed, of various strata, 
some hard, others soft. The predominant color is red, pas. 

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aing iLilo broWn. The gray, and lliose tinged atightly brown, 
aie intersiralifled with the former ; but the former are the 
. and are much thicker than i^ie lailor. 



§ 89. The slates rest upon the sandstones, I have just des- 
cribed. These elatea are thin bedded strata, — They aie ten- 
der and easily broken, and fa[[ into angular fragmenis, but 
not sLifficienlly hard to form a flat gravel, and hcQce, from 
their composition, they are constantly becoming a soil wher- 
ever exposed to the wealhei'. 

Tiie beds are quite unifonn in their mineral characters, 
and composiiion. They are green and black ; rarely red ; 
but, (he latter arisea from a kind of bleaching, which 
they have undergone, by exposure to the weather. 

The slate may be described as consisting of" 

1. Green slates adjoining the sandstones. 

2. Black, which frequently alternate with the 

green. 

3. Calcareous beds, in which silica predomin- 
. ales, or in which silica forms more than 

fifty per cent. These divide the slates 
into two parts or divisions, 

4. Thin beds of impure black liLnestont. 

The coal, fire clay, and argillaceous iron ore, belong 
to Ibis division of the formation, and iha whole series may be 
described as consisting of 

1. Slates of various colors. 

2. Ooul seams, accompanied wilhits fire clay, 

argillaceous iron stone. 

3. In proximity to ihe coal, an impnre ,gray 

magnesian litneslone freqnenily occcura, 
to which succeeds the upper sandstone. 

Thk Fire Clay is a mass of argillaceous matter ; quite 
fine, of a greenish color. Near Ihe surface, it is a clay, and 
easily moulded, or cut inio any form ; but at the depth of 



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124 

twenty-five or thirty feet, it is often hard, and more like 
atone ; slillj by exposure to the weathei', it becomes soft and 
shows the character of the element of whicli it is formed. 
It is often traversed by roots of ancient vegetables, wbich 
gave origin to (he coai. 

2. Iron. — The iron occur in tiodules, or concrelions, some 
of which will weigh between three and four himdred pounds. 
It is the common argillaceous oxyde, mixed wiih the carbo- 
nate. It does not, therefore, form a regular alratifled mass ; 
but seems to be a constant associate of the coat-seams. 

3. The Coal Sbams, — There are fine coal seams ; the 
order and relation of which to the other beds is illustrated by 
the following section : — 

1. The first indications of the coal seam is by 

the appearance of micaceous sandstone 
alternating a few limes with the slates. 

2. Fire clay. Its greatest thickness is about 

ten feet. A bed of this thickness was 
pej'forated by Mr. Campbell, of Moore Co. 

3. Coal seam. 

4. Slaty bedsj with argillaceous iron ore. 

It seems to be established by observation, that the fine 
seams of coal are quite constant. 

If we take an illustration from the Parmville and Horn- 
ville Hiinesj the following order of deposits will be obser- 
ved : — 

1. Shaly sandstone, wiih fire ctay. 

2. Seam of coal, three feet thick. 

3. Pour feel sandstone. 

4. One foot of coal, and fire clay beneath. 

5. Shale. 



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These lower beds dip soiuhwest, and puss beneath the 
seams of coal at Furrnville, which are upon the adjoining 
lot: 

G. Coal, three feet thick. 

7. Fifteen feet of slate. 

8. Coal seam two feet, 

9. Slate ten inches. 

10. Coal seam four feet, and file clay. 

11. Slate of varioHs colors with their fossils. 

§ 90. There seems to be a slight variation in (he materials 
composing [he coal slates. Thus ; 

The Taylor mine fiirtjiahes the loilowing section ; — 

1. Slale below the coal seams, 

3, Coal seam eighteen to thirty inches. 

3. Slate three to five inches. 

4. Coal two and u half to three feet, 

5. Shye ten inches. 

6. Coal fonr feet. 

7. Fire clay, apparently succeeded by gray 

sandstone and Slate. 

8. Soil ; the Taylor mine is three miles west of 

Farmville, 

The eighteen inch coal seam, «t the Taylor mine, has 
been struck ; but not so expo.ied, as to determine its exact 
thickness. 

The lower seams at Farmville are found at the Taylor 
mine, wiiich shows a persistence of these thin seams, which 
ore better known at the extreme eastern outcrop. 

The seams, at the Gulf, are supposed to corres pond very 
nearly with those already described. 

At Willcox's, still farther to the southwest, the seams are 
not so easily recognized, as the openings are iinperfecdy 



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made, and were filled wiiii water, when I visited them. 
The Wilcox seams, it should be observed, are noii-bituniiti- 
ous. 

The Murchieon seams, at the outcrop, contain more slate ; 
but the seam is said to be eight or nine feet thick. The 
lower seams have not been sought for, at this point. 

The fact, that fire clay overlies the highest coal seam, bC 
the Taylor mine, indicates (he existence of another seam 
above it. And, we may expect, that deeper in the basin or 
trouijb, others will be struck. 

Of the number of coal seams, then, the five noticed in the 
section, embrace ail which have been as ye(, brought lo light, 
I shall take occasion, to give my views, hereafler, more fnlly, 
of the prospects of ihis coal field. 

5 91. Slates overire all the coal seams. Their lhTcknes« 
above them, is abont three himdred afid fifty feet. The coal 
strata lie below the midst of the strata beds. The strata 
above the coal consist of greenish slates, with hard layers 
occasioniiHy alternating with them. There is, then, taking 
the slates as a whole, a great sameness in their appearance 
and composhion, and a great degree of uniformity in their 
thickness, at the different places, where they have been ex- 
plored. From this fact, it foHows, that, they are not to be 
regnrded as subordinate to the s^mdalone, that they arc con- 
stituent parts of a great formation, which required an exten- 
ded petiod, for their deposition. 

I have spoken of the associated coat strata, as slates : bnt, 
abroad, a formation possessing iheir characters would be 
denominated 'marly ov tnarl slate ; and the name is highly 
proper. When their composition and liability to decomposition 
is taken into (he nccouni, Ihey .are similar to marls, having 
lima as a consiiiiieiit pari of their composition 

In Rdoptin.i; the term, m.trl slntes, we should follow the 
designation of live English and German authorities ; but, as 
coal is a consiani accompaniment of (he slates, it seems as well 
to call them cual stales. It is an important fact, which 



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137 

shoiild be remftDibercd , tliat llie coal la nssociated with iliese 
slates ; that, althtiugii the sandstones, above and below, ji.re 
much thicker, and mineralogically, more important, still, 
ikey contain no coa! ; there is no recurrence of siate beds, 
which can be regatded aa repetitions of the one I have descri- 
bed. The sbaiy sandstones, which are mostly red, some- 
times green, but never black, show very conclusively, that, 
vegetable matter is only sparingly disseminated rlirough the 
beds, and that the conJir.ions, required for the growth of coal 
plants, were not rep'iated, during the era of ihese sandstones. 
This fact ia practical, and shows in what part of the system 
we may expect to find coal. 

5 92. I have refrained from speaking of certain imimpor- 
tant beds, which have been regarded by many as coal seams. 
I allude to lignite — which is found in the sandstones, just 
above the congiomerate. It consists,- merely, of tiees, of the 
era of (he sandstones which have been converted into coat ; 
and, in consequence of the great pressure to which they have 
been subjected, they have been flattened, and made to assume 
the foim of a (bin coal scam. 

There is no confidence lo be placed in these thin seams — 
either as seams, or as indications of seams. They are not 
coal blossoms ; nor beds of the least economical importance. 
They are instructing, ejs geological fuels. They furnish us 
examples of plants growing in an interesting period of the 
earth's history; and, as historical data, which record the 
events which have transpired in former times, they are 
mvahiabfe. 

I am thus particular in speaking, in this place, of these 
unimportant seams of lignite, — or wood changed into coal, 
still retaining \\s structure , — for the purpose of saying that 
they are of no value. 

There is a still more important point, in this connection, 
jvhich should be spoken of : It ia, that coal occupies certain 
positions. ; aitd I would not allude to it again, in ibia place, 
were it not that searches and explorations are being made, 



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at the presenl time, for Coal in Lincoln County, — a field, 
which, of all othera in'the State, presents the poorest prospect 
fox lioding the substance sought. 

Thu only rocks in which coal will ever be found, in North . 
Carolina, are the aandsionea and slate I have been speaking 
of. The primary slates, though they may be dark colored, 
and even black, do not derive iheir color from vegetable 
matter ; but from fine sulphur, diffused ihrouijh the rock, and 
which has been derived from the deuomposiiion of sulphnret 
of iron. Hence, it may happen, thai certtxin black slates 
may exhibit a feeble combustion upon the fire,— it is no un- 
common thing. 

The fact should be more generally known in the commu- 
nity, that coal has been formed, exclusively, from vegetable 
matter; and that coa! is found aiibordinaie to certain rocks. 
Any well informed American Geologist, upon hearing a 
statement respecting the locidilv of a supposed coal-bed, can 
decide the question at once; — at least, so far as this: — the 
probability of its existence, if the locality is in a district of 
known coal-bearing rocks ; and the certainty of its non-exist- 
ence in parts of country underlaid by rock older than the 
Devonian pyslem. 

Lignite beds occur, also, in the tertiary ; and, as it appear, 
when dried, hke coal, it is not singidai that it should be re- 
garded as such. My allention has been frequently directed 
to these beds, on the Cape Fear River, by individuals who 
regarded them as coal beds of some value. 

The outlines of all \he geological system are now tolera- 
bly well settled, and all that part of the United Stales, which 
is (itiderlaid with Primary, 'laconic, Siberian or Devonian 
rocks, are totally destitute of any workable beds of coal. 
1 leave out of view, a dcbateable groiinti ; ihat of the upper 
Devonian, as the late Richard C, Taylor favored the view, 
thai some of the lowest and oldest coal beds may be found 
in connection with that sysiem. 



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129 

There nre two modes of mis!eading men, in this mailer ; 
the first and most common is by the repreaeniation of Comisli 
anti oiher European miners, who are out of woik, or who 
are lotally ignorant of all ihe essential characiers of a coal 
mine. The secont!, is from ihe representations of daii-voiy- 
ants. To a sensible nmn, it is scarcely necessary, to guard 
and caution him, by advice, in regard to the laKer, In 
either case, however, it is proper to ask proof; for it is a 
maiter, which admifs of proof, — visible proof; at leas', so 
far as proba'ii lilies are concerned. There is evidenre, al- 
ways at hand, for or againsl. When there is evidence for, 
it will be proper lo Tnvesiigaie irs cJaims, but when (here is 
no evidence, as ihere can be \ one in a!! ihe rocks older and 
beneath the true carboniferous, no ignoraul mi.er nor itn- 
poslor, who pretends to look into a stone, shouki be allowed 
to swindle lis. 



Note. — It is difficult to determine the number of seams of 
coal which exist In this system of rocks. The exploraiions 
by boring require to be isiade, on the line of out crops, htifore 
the number can be determined. I'ive have already been ex- 
posed. But as the Wilcox veiua are nearly souih from Mur- 
chison's, and upon one side of the out crop of the Horion, 
Taylor and Farraville, it indicates that (here are seams siill 
above those, and near the junction of ihe slate with (he up- 
per sand sione. The Mnrchison dips in a direction which 
will carry it beneath the Wilcox anthiacite seams — unless 
there is an uplift which has brought up the lalter from a great 
depth. At the out crop, (be Wilcox is also connected wiih 
layers of saod stone and hme sione, which do not elsewhere 
appear. Fiom those facia it may be reasonably inferred that 
the coal seams are more numerous tliaa has usually been ^ 

supposed. Hosted by ClOO^^lC 



aUALITY OF THE DEEP RIVEU COAL. 



i 93. Tile two varieties of cnal, the bitmninous and serni- 
bituminous, passing into anthracite, are Iiiiowii in this ccal- 
field. The bimtninous is scarcely equalled hr fineness 
and excellency, in this country, and it has been said by a 
gentle«iari. who ia well acquainted with Liverpool coal, 
Ihat it will barn twice as long, A direct comparisiin has 
noi been made, to my knowledge, but that the assertion has 
much truth in it, i have no doubt 

The Deep River coaiis, in the first pJace, quite fieefrom 
smut; it does not soil the fingers, but In a trifling degree. 
It burns freely, and forms a cike ; or it undergoes a semi- 
fusion, and agglutinates, and forms a partially impervions 
hollow cake, within which combustion goes on for a lung 
time. When a aniali pile of it is made upon the ground, 
it may be ignited by a match and a few dry leavfs or 
sticks. It may be ignited in ihe blaze of n iamp or candle. 
The coal is, therefore, highly combustible, easily iguitedl 
and burns with a bright flame like lightwood, for a long 
time. It may be burnt upon wood fire. It may be burnt 
in the Ci»mmon fire-place, and it is not a liitle strange, that 
gentlemen, who have used it for many years, in a black 
smith's forge, siiould not have used it in their parlors, in- 
stead of green black oak. 

This coal is adapted to all the purposes^, f<Fr which the 
bituminous coals are specially employed. Thus, for the 
manufacture of the carburelted hydrogen, for lighting streets 
and houses, there is no coat superior to it, II will require 
less expense for furr ishing it ; because, it contains so little 
sulphur, from which sulphurellted hydrogen is formed So, 



abyClOOglC 



131 

also, in the grate, It will be far less offensive, for the same 
reason. But, as it is rich in bitumen, it will furnish a large 
amoiint of gas, and that which is, comparatively, pure. 
This advantage is one of great importance. It should, 
also, be stated, that it furnishes an excellent cake, which 
may be used for manufacturing purposes, and as it is left 
very porous, it is in a condition to absorb a large quantity 
of the solution of cyanide of potassium ; and hence, is 
well adapted lo the work of reducing the metals. It is 
scarcely necessary to add, that it is admirably adapied to 
steamings, inasmuch as its Same is free and durable. For 
forge use, it is not siu'passed by any coal in market; and 
for parlor grates, it is both pleasant, economical, and tree 
from dirt. If a chimney has a pour draft, it is liable to the 
ol)jection comiu.jn to all etials of this kind, — the escape 
of soot into the room. 

The qualities of the Deep Kiver coal are nf that char- 
acter, then, which will give it the highest place in Ihe mar- 
ket. The localities which have been best explored, and 
where coal of a decided character tms bean iittamed, are at 
Hornesvilie and FarmviUe, both in the same neigh iiorhood. 
The Taylor mine, the Gulf or Horton, and the Murchison 
mines, all fnrnish a bitummous coal, which may vary 
in some minor points, yet is quite similar as a whole 
The Horton mine has been used the longest, tt was 
known in the revalution, and a report made to Congress, 
j-e^pec!ing it, is still extant. Had the propositions or views 
been carried out, which were expressed in that report, we 
can scarcely tell, what the results would have been, not 
only upon the population of Deep River, but also, upon 
the enterprize of the State. It must be noticed, [hat Deep 
River is central, and in the interior of a country, abound- 
ing in iron ; that it is navio:able, by aid of certain im- 
provements ; that it commniunicafes with ihe ocean, and 
finds a market abroad, for a surplu^ of the products of 
manufactures add agriculture ; that a use of the natural 
advantages, to a p.irtial extent only, makes a home market. 



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132 

But ibe time had not come, for improving ihe resourcua 
of ihis district. Thev are, therefore, rfserved entire fnr 
the preseni, and they canaot be neglected longer, unless 
a suicidal State policy is pursued. 

Bui however fine and excellent a coal may he, it is nc- 
ces-iiirv thill it should foroiextensivebeds, in order to have 
a commercial value. 

4 94 The next qiieslion, ihen. of inleresl to ihe eom- 
muiiiiy is. (li.ir the comumniij is interested as much as 
llie owiievK,) will it bear rniiiing. and ide expendiiure of 
the necessary capiral. lotakc it (o market. To answer ihra 
quesiiiiri, il is iiecessiiry lo miikd soina calculations, by 
■which we irmy loi-m smoe jjsi vww of i!s quantity ? In 
doing this, we may veriluri; toussuioe, on a geological basis, 
ihat the con) seams, which oulcrop IVom beneath ihesand- 

slur.tK, x'Ptid benealh (hem, and for what appears to the 
contrary, the slates, with llieir coal bees, are coexieirsive 
with the under and overlyii.g raiLdtumes. liis foiniaiii^n is 
known to form a belt of rocks, from 12 to 14 miles wide. 
The iiiie of outcrops of ihe slates, upon which cnai h^is 
been mised, is about 20 miles IJui ihe line of oiilcrop ol 
the unexplored slate, winch embraces the coal, is al li^ast 
60 miles within the ytnte, on a line running .'^ouib "l vtust. 
We mny nssiime the followmg data, viz : that tlie coal beds 
extend from (heir northern outcrop, three mites beneatli ihe 
sandstone ; which is about one ihird their natural extent ; 
and that the line of outcrop, upon which coal is, and will 
be found, is thirty miles. If the thickest seam of oo u i:, 
worked, which has a thickness of '6 feet, excl'nsive of a 
thin hand of slate, it will give for every square yard of 
surface, two square yards of coal. A square acre has 
4.900 superficial yards; hcrjce, there will be fi.HOO squinre 
yards of coal, in each acic, ami as -i square \rtrd of coal 
■weighs a Ion, there will be For every acre, 9,800 toHs of coal. 
A thousand acres will give 9,600,000 fons of coal, or a 



abyCOOglC 



square mile, 6,272,000 tons This coal field is known to 
extend thirtj- miles, in ihe direction of outcrop, and to be 
workable, for a hrB.idih of three miles. We may from this 
data, calculate bow much accessible coai we may exjiect 
to find, in this quite limiled Held. If the field covers only 
43 square miles, ihe lowest esiimate to be taken, we may 
calcidale its value, by the foliowing mode; 

If one hundred topis of co d iire taken out daily, thirty 
thousand tons would be removed annually, reckoning three 
hundred working days lo the year. I. would, at this rute, 
require over three hundred years, to remove the coal from 
a ilioiisand acres, or, over rwo hundred years, lo remove 
that which undnriies asqiiiire mile, or, (igbt ihousand six 
hundred years, to remove the coul of forty three square 
miles. If in eslimaiing the Vidue of this coal field, we base 
our calculations upon time, they sh')n!d satisfy us; or if we 
biise ihemtipon quantity, they will warrant ihe. invest inent 
of capital In these catjulaticms, ^e have both time and 
quantity, and the 8tale, in encouraging improvements as 
well as individu;di, may look forward wilh confidence, on 
Ihe permanency and safety, in iiivestmenis, in this ki id ot 
property. The wants of the world are with the piip- 
uiation — indeed, they kfiep ahead of simple iiicrease of 
individuals. The quantity to be removed annually may ba 
increased, and leave the lims sufficiently long, lo satisfy 
the investment of capital; or the time ujay he increaserl, by 
diminishing the quantity, atid still the annual profiis of the 
iuvisiinerit should satisfy the capitalist. Hut while popula- 
tion increases at a rapi I rale, the resources .if the I o rest 
lorf'id ;ire diminishing al a greater ratio, than ifie simple 
iiicreis.} of population ; ih-r,-lore, iherj is no w;ty in 
wbii;h capital can be so saf.-iy invested, as in c 'al lanJs, 

If the foregoing calciihitinns are correct. Ihey .^astify the 
wjrk which h^is been umtert^ik^ii (o improve iha naviga- 
tioii of U.;ep R ver. It is prudence, to he cautious in 
sclie:iies of this kiiii!, but in this case, the amount ol pro- 



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134 

perly beneath itie surface or in ihe rocks, upon this river, 
is enormous — i I should he dufj out; and what it costs to 
do (his, will be turnins ni.-uemls and iabor inio money. 
If the whole entsvprize is begun, and carried on in a proper 
spini, every nook and corner of the Slate, from Currituck 
to Buncombe, will I'eel an invigoiitiing ir>lluence. 

Bill ihe caleula.'.ion, as to the qusiiitity of coal, will pro- 
bably far exceed, than fall shorl oi the estimates. In the 
first place only a part of ihearea is taken into the calcu- 
latioi), and ihen, in assumirg the Ihickness ©f the principal 
beds, a> only six feet, it may be regarded as only the mmi- 
mam thickness. If will rather increase than diminish; 
this view of the mailer is supported by observation. For 
as the skipes have been carried aloi'g ihe dip, there hns 
been a perceptible inciea.'^e already. It is also to be con- 
sidered, that at tfie ou'crop, when vegetable matter forming 
the coal is only upon ihe outer vein, it shonid be Swiceliiat 
at a distance from the outcrop; fbr we may suppose, that, 
in ihe middle only, of a coal basin, do we obtain the max- 
imum thickness. ThuB,iineof theco.il seams in the Rich- 
mond basin is forty feet thick. The Deep River beds, not 
havif g been broken up. or not having s'lfffred an uplift 
through the middle of its trough or basin, exhibits nowhere 
near the surface, an outcrop of coal, except vpo7i the rim, 
or outer edge ol the basin. Ab we penetrate inio it, we 
have grounds which justify the view, that the seams will 
increase steadily in ihrckneMs, as the slope penetrates into 
the basin, lowards the centre, and then the seiinis, wiiich 
saw appear only upon the outer rim, will thicken, and per- 
haps uniie and f<n'm one rfislii^ci heavy seum towards the 
middle of the basin or trough. 

The foregoing views as to quantity are founded upon 
daia dfHved from observation, the phenomena ol ci^al 
fields, and theory, which is well sustained, resjiecting the 
maimer in which successive seams of coaJ hate been form- 
ed. 



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135 

The calculations as to tha quantity of coal in the Deep Ri- 
coal field are based upon what is known, ami withom ref- 
erence to what we may possibly find by exploration here- 
after. These caSculalioiis must be regarded as satisfactory, 
and siicfi as will justify the hopes and expectations of the 
ownei's, and those who «re interested in liie iniproTements 
of the day. 



THE SANDSTOT^EK ABOVE THE SLATES. 

The iinper division of this syslem of roclis is made up 
ofa series of saudslonee, which difler only slightly irom 
tho.^e below. They are hard and red, brown and mottled, 
or 7Mrieo-ated rocks, which are frequently separated from 
each other by soft greenish clays. There are to he repeti- 
tions of the inferior members, so far ns this composition 
and oriijm is concerned. Among the different refl and 
browH strata, it is v«ry common to find those which con- 
tain many small irregular cavities. Probably these cyvi- 
ties contained imperfect cryslals of salt, or other soluble sub- 
stance, which has bpen removed bj solutiun 

These sandstones, lik,e the inferior, are destiliue of fossils, 
excepting a few obscure vegaiable casts, which t»rft iudtiier- 
niinable. Near and jilst ahove the coal slates, a slr«tum 
of iiitpiire limestone is filled wiih the posidonia miriuta 
which disappears with the commencenieiitof Ihe red locks. 

Among the softer layers oxyde of iron occurs in small 
nodules. It is not in suifiGient quantities to be of mueh sic- ■ 
count. It hiis been employed in dying woollens, and 
henctj has received the name ni dye stone. 



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But, so 
soil, that even 



luchofthe upper sandstones are concealed by 
■en piaster irughi be hid within the strata. 



AGRICULTSJRAL CHAllACTERS OF THE UPPER 
AND LOWHK 'SANDSTONES. 

§95. The soller Hirala disinlejrraler anr' pass into the 
coDfliiion of soli. Tiiese soils are always red, but the red 
inclriies more to a bjowti than the soils, which are formed 
from the gold slates, which, from the presence of sulphnret 
of iron, become red hIso. The sandstone soil is derived 
mainly i'rom (he arsiil; ceous parts of ihe formiition, and 
hence it bears the charocrers of an argil laceous soil, a de- 
gree of stiffness which suits the cotton and wheat plant. 
Its stiffness and comparative iinperme.ibihty give it re- 
tenii'eness : but ii also holds too niuch water, and especial- 
ly where the land is flat, it is far loo compiict 1o admit of 
high cultivation without the aid of draining. The ele- 
ments of the soil are adapted to the highest and best calti- 
Talion. But as the surface water is compelled to flow 
over the surface, and into channels efitd own forming, it 
js very iiable in the end to score the soil deeply with gorges, 
and ravines, and thereby injure very lunch ihe pbtniniion. 
These red soils, also, when cnllivated in exhaii^'tiou, pr even 
before they becimebMre. render it exlren.eij difficull to res- 
tore (o the sinfiice its lost vegeiaiion. 't he only mode in 
which it can he effected, is t<i cover and protect those 
pinces with stniw or brush, 'ihe heMi ufihe suii shonid be 
softened, and the surf.ico proieciei from washing anew by 
raiLJs. Bv peiseverinp in ihts wiiy, these itl looking and 
barren spois may be removed from a plaiilaiioLi. 



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THICKNHSS OP THE FORMATION. 



§ 96 It is difficult lo obtain ihe data by which the Px;iCt 
thickness nt this foimali'in can be determined. It is cnn- 
cealed by its own debris so getieraliy, that it is only from 
the subordinate parts that if* thickut^ss can be inrerred. — 
Taking the subordiiiale beds, dip and width all into the <io- 
count, Ihe whole ihicktiess ot the formalion cannot be luss 
than five ibousand feet. The inferior mass, or that below 
the folate, is about fifteen hundred, the slate five htiodn.d, 
and perhaps six hundred, and ihe superior division ihree 
thousand. This Jast estimate is below the mark raiKer 
than abive it. In forming an estimate of liie tbjckni'ss- 
of this formation. I have been careful to guard againsf de- 
ception which often arises from a repetition of strata in 
consequence of a succession of uplifts. In this formation 
Ihe danger may begrealer than in many others, as the stra- 
ta are concealed by soil. But the indications upon the sur- 
face go to prove that the strata have been disturbed only 
at one period. A single trap dyke traverses the entire for- 
miiiion from the Sonth-west towards the North-east. This 
trap appears at numerous points niong.the line, as at ihe 
Gulf, and Evans' mill, crossing the river twice, and U rins 
al each place a considerable ledge of rocks The falls are 
du^, thert fore, to the trap dyke. At iinoiher place near Ev- 
ar:s' mills, in theroad by ftlra. lioberls,' Ihe dip of (he strata 
is reversed lor a short distaiK-e. Bui this is only local, and 
does no! atfeu.t ths great mass of strata of which the forma- 
tion is eomposed. South ol ihe river, they presefveagi'i^at 
uni''orniily of dip, as to direction, andanionnt.and no part 
bus come to light, which indicuics an in>;Iniiceof repetiihin. 



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138 

* 97. Having briefly noticed and .described the thrse 
m mh«rs, composing this formation, a few remarks upon 
ihe origin of the materials will be in place. 

The maierials, consiiieietl in tlieir mineralogicti charac- 
ters, Were derived from (wo distinct sources : the commori 
source was nndoubledly the siaie of the gold series. Of 
Ihe correctness of this view, there can he no doiiht, as 
they even contain a small quantity of £o)d, and the quartz 
retnins the peculiar ch.tracterisric of that of the slaies ; 
it is best seen in the r.onizion.erates, vrJiere the masses of 
quartz are larger than in sandstone. The color of the 
sandstones is due to the presence of oxyde of iron. The 
iron came from the same source as the sandstones. These 
sliites are highly charged wiih pyrites, which have been 
thorouiihly decomposed; — the sulphur dissipated, or probably 
it has formed vew combinations, The oxyde of iron, being 
insoUibte, has remained with the pariiclf s composing the 
rocks ; and it has formed, of itself, no combination with 
other bodies, unless it is wi'h carbonic acid. The iron 
forms a superficial coaling upon the angular grsiins of 
sands, an'l may be removed by washing, when it leavea 
a perfectly pure white sand. In the other case, it is inter- 
mixed with clay and a smaller proportion of fine sand, and 
forms the softer beds, which are sometimes called redmarh. 
It seems, therefore, that the materials of this group of rocks 
were brought from the northwest side of it, or from that por- 
tion of ih.- gold rocics which lie in that direction. As, 
however, the area of deposit must have been basin shaped, 
or trough shiiped, .he materials must have been derived, 
al.5o Irom all sides of it; but our exfiminaiions are facili- 
taed'upon the nnnliwest sid,' liy a vertical movement; 
heoce, we are ahia lo tesi the t^uth of ihese views, rather 
U})un that side, than upon the southeast. 

^ 98. It is more difficult to deiermine the origin of the 
materials composing the coat slates. These contain lime, 
but no sand, except in combination with alumina. Ihe 



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139 

slates, ihfrefcre, differ so much fvom the sandstones, that 
theie can lie nn doubt, that rhe oriffiii and source, fiora 
whence they weredorived, was different also. They indU 
cale a toTni change in (he direction in which the sediment 
came, and as there is no formation lo ihe northwest, or 
southwest, to which their oiigin can he altribnled. 1 am 
inclined to regard the source as concealed by the present 
ocean. 

The; sandstones in the United States, of the ageschisely 
approximating to those under consideration, w«re deposited 
ill shiillow waier. The ripplu marks, ihe foot prints, which 
have been preserved, are regarded as proofs of this position. 
Taking the same ground and kind of evidence. I have not yet 
been able to furnish thesamegroundofproof for their deposi- 
tioii inshiliovv ivaler. I have not yet discovered footptint.'-, or 
ripple tnarhs, and the only fac(, which goes tu stipport the 
view entertained, of the depth of watej, in which Ihe strata 
were deposifed, is, a single layer, which had cracked in dry- 
ing. These cracks were subsequently filled with sediment. 
Still, but few opportunities for a disclosure of the inte- 
rior of these deposiis have been fnrnished. The blocks 
of sandstone, which have been employed m building, 
hiive been procured from the surfuce, and which wera 
already loosened from their beds ; besides this, the strata 
have not been laid oare by an inundation. The means, there- 
fore, for obtaining n series ol facts, bearing upon these 
questions, are insufficient. They throw but little light 
upon them, and we must, Iheretbre, wait until railroads 
and internal improvements have Iiiid open the series to in- 
spection. 

The eviilence, as it now stands, favors the view, that 
these rocks were deposited in deep water; the absence of 
all npple niiirk-s, the great thickness of the deposits, and 
thickness of Ihe deeper layers, indicate for the sfmdslouea 
deep oceanic deposits. 



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AGE AND EQUIVALENCY OF THE FORMAT[ON. 

§ 99. The age of a rock, or of a formniion, is determined 
wilhouE difficulty, provided it contains fossils ; especi^illj 
those belonging to the tnolusca;— or, if its relations to 
oiher systems can be seen; whether those systen,s wre 
above or below. But the sandstones and coal -stones rest 
upon a series of gold-bearing rocks, whose age dates b:.cli 
farllier than any fossiliferous roclis ; — hence Ihey cannot 
be employed for comparison. The only roclts which rest 
upon them are the sands of the tertiary. We have no 
way boards by which their relations to other formations 
can be determined, excepting those of the most general 
character. 

The fogsils are exceedingly scarce ; and their spers'es 
few in number, and not very distinctive. They are confined 
to one species of moiusea; a small posidimia cir a;pris ; 
which is regarded as a crustacean, and whicli is only the 
■ size of a grass-seed ; the ledh of two or three snuriKliSt 
and the scales and leeth of one or two fish. The posi- 
donia does not ditfer from the posidonia of the Richmond 
beds, exc<(ft in size : — it is smaller, and resembles the 
P. tninuliiz of Goldfiiss. 

This lossil is remarkable for its numbers ; everf loyer 
ill portions ol ;he slate is crowded with them, and ihey 
range from the top to the boiiora. It is usually one-eigh.lh 
of an inch in diameler ; the largest rar'.ly ever exceed one- 
quarter. Il is always flat, in ihe slates, from pressure, and 
always ronnd and plump in the ihin beds of impure linie- 
stiine. 'I'he cyprirf, or It may be a cythcrina, is aliout 
one linein lengih am! poiiiied at both ends, and smooth. 
Ir resembles a iiny -^e d ; and so nnmerons is this 
minute fossil, that ihick layers are made up almosi ';ii- 
lifely of it. It is scarcely poj-iible to iniich a point wirl> a 
p;n, and not nuiiiiale one. 



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141 

The presence of the cypris itidicnles that the slates are 
a liesh wnier foimjitiuti — ihey go to prove that a remark- 
able change took place afier the lower sandstones were 
deposited — that the ocean, in which the sandstones were 
fonued, was removed — iiud ilm luisin, to which sediioein 
had been hiought from a distant tjiiarier, ceased to bs 
brought lo it as formerly, and IVom ihe same as ihey had 
bti-ii ; — and, in fine, ihiil what had beea sta became a fresh 
walcr lake. I( was nol; miiil lids change from red sandy 
sediments lo^ik place, that the fossils peopling ihe waiters 
appeared; and iheii rliey were coidined to a very Uinltt^d 
miuiber of specits 

If, however, (his small ioasil is a eytherina, the change 
which it is supposed may have occuried at the close of the 
0C(.-aiiic saijdstoiies, was only in ilie direction oi the sedi- 
muuts; a change which appears, to have been sudden — fur 
the sandstones scarcely alien, ate wiili the lower siaies. 
Tbey begin, as it were, at once; but the basin or IrougL 
Wiis stil! oceanic. 

t,)i saurian remains, in the formation, I c^n speak only 
of two species i[] the sandsioiies : — one below the slates, 
and of the crocodilian t}|rti; and one above, with long 
curved teeth. And. probably, ihree species in the slate — 
the leelh of one are long, ijltlidt.r, an i curve four inches ; 
the leelh of anolher, id a ine.iium lcr;glh, and only slightly 
flauei ed, and very finely serr-iieci on one edge ; the teeth 
ol ihe other, disiinctly serraitd on boih edges, and agrees 
Willi figures of the tliecodonto saurus of Owen, 

'I'he iaticr puinis lo the Permi m age ; and Sir Charles 
Lved has observed, thai this s.^urian was regarded as the 
oldest animal known of that type; — and, ironi its pre- 
sence in the older dep'wits, Mr. U^an has shown (hat it 
militates ag-ii..5l the doctrines uf tlie Auihor of the Vesii. 
g::ti ut Creadon. It raiik:< v^ith the highest animals of that 
Ijpe ; proving that rank IS in.i determined by the periods 
in which animals have lived. 1 he most remarkable saurian, 



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142 

if saurian it is, is the species furnished with the long slen- 
der teeth, of which I have seen no figures reseffifaling them 
in form or length. They are slightly flattened, giving an 
oval in a transverse section ; but their sides are not arined 
with serratures. 

The bones in the rocks above the coal, are black. The 
landsloRe had become concreiioiiary, and exfuliiiied in 
their coats, like those of an onion; and hence, il was im- 
possible, to obtain them in a good condition ; besides, the 
rock had, aiso, become excri^ding ha)d and longli. 

The lossils, being in my opinion, new, throw no positive 
light upon the age of the rocks, in which they occur. 

The fish scales are quite smsiil and smooth. Their form 
is ihomboid-.il, some acute, others obtuse. Thejeeth are 
small, slender and pointed, and seem to fork slightly, at 
Iheir roots. Another fossil, which might be mistaken Ibr 
a vegetable, is, undoubtedly, an appendage to a fish. 

The vegetables are few in nurnlier, and differ from those 
of the coal rocks oi Pennsylvania, or Ihe flora of the car- 
boniferous system. An Ec[Liiselii;es, differing from E. Com- 
munis, is the only one of this ^enus 1 have seen. A lyco. 
podites, and olher allied forms, are all I have yet found, ex- 
cept a naked aud ratherspinous vegeiable, which is unknown 
in the carboniferous rocks. It is a cellular crytogamwus 
plant. This is very common and abundant at Madisnn. 
and one or two layers of slate are covered with ii at 
Evans' Mills. 

The roots of vegstabies, in the fire clay, are thin, n.-.r- 
row, ribfaon-like (issues ; and have lost their vegetable 
itructures. Their thinness and compressibility show, how- 
ever, ihat the roots were spongy, of a loose lexlnre, and 
were aqualio. 

The rReagre list of plants and animals, then, deposited in 
the slates, furnish only grouads for conjecture, to what 
age Ihe forniHlinn belongs. My opinion, derived from all 
the Ifiri^ .'UT-I t^irnuinstiuices luinwn to nis, iu;iines me to 



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143 

adopt the belief, that it is the upper new red sandsstono 
Still, il'tlie Uichmond coal basin is of the same age, as tiia 
eoai rocks of North Carolina. Geologisls will be disposed 
Irt place the series along with the Oolites or Lias, a :' ■ > 
Wm B. Rodgers and Sir Uh. Lyell have done — on the 
ground, that the fossils are, in pari, identical in species 
with ihosc of Whiiby. in Miigland, where those rocks are 
well dttveloped, Mr Lyell observes, that the sandstoiies 
containing fish, of the Connecticut river, are of an older 
date than the strata coniainiiig coat near Richmond, The 
higher aniiquity of the Oooneciicui beds cannot be provtd 
by direct supposition ; but the fact is presumed from ilie 
structure of the conntrji. That slrucliire proves them ro 
be newer ihaij the moverasnts '.o which the Alleghany 
chain owes its ffiovements or flexures; atid this chain in- 
cludes the aticieiit cnal iiirmalions among its contorted roi;lis, 
The uiicontorniabfe position of (his new red with the pri- 
mary is often seen. He regards the sandstoiies of ihe 
Coniieclicut valley as triassic ; but, to wh;it portion of 
the triaxsic;, which division, whfther upper or lower, is 
not di^lermiried. 

In Europe, the triassic is rich in fossils ; and diifeient 
parts of the series are so well chafacterlsed by (ossils, that 
the determinations are not difficult. But here, in this 
country, the Oontiecticut valley, the Neiv Jersey beds, tlie 
sandstones of (he Potomac, and Fredericksburg, and Noiih 
Carolina, are .-illobicure, from their relations, and trom L'le 
absence of characteristic fossils. 



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THE DAN IIIVER COAL FIELD. 



I 100 Ifi Rockingham and Htokes Counties, a series of 
rocks liave tieen known for a qiiitrier of a ceoinry, as coal- 
bearing. These rocks are similiir to those of Daep Uivev, 
and consist of the snms members. They lie in the 
sauie order, and have the same reiiitions to each other, as 
th'ise ofOlialhiim and Mimv, <ie heep River. 

Vv hile ilieie c.-in he no doubt respecting the age and re- 
lai.oiis of the entire seiicsj c liiijjuretf with tliuse of JJeRp 
ItiVL'V, still 1 have ohseiveLi a few peculiarities worlhy ol 
noiice. 

■l'h« Diiii river coal dt-posils mny he divided, for ihe 
corivenieiict: of de,scri|iliori, into five parts: — 

1. JDiperfect conglomerales and brecci.is, 

2. I.iiwer sandsiohts, iiicludiiig ihe soi'i and 
h.ird. 

3. '. oal sliues, \iiih iheir siibordinale de- 

4 U if.er sanrisiones; inchtdiiig the i-oft and 

■ h:'.i-d kinds. 
6 ('oi.gloHietales ; i r biticciated couglom. 



The seveval pons, coiisliudinjj; a contplele and perfect 
sysiein, occupy a s; ucl'ria! tn:iigli, and lie in the primary 
or slraiitied pyrociystailiiie rocks. Its direction is noi ih- 
east mid souih\\e.3l. Tiie axis ujay be defined by uniting 
Leaksvilleand (jermaiKoii by a liJie, This line will repre- 
sent the direction of the coal slates 



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The genernl dip of the system is fo the northwest ; — the 
angle of dip hes wiihiii 15 and 40°.° T he dip is usuully 
above 20°. In N-mh CiiroULia, the rocks extend 40 
miles. The breiidih is heiween (our and seven miles. The 
aystem exlends iuio Virginia on the noi-th ; but how far, I 
am uniiifiirnieit. 

This field, it will be nhberved, covers a smaller area than 
Deep Uiver. Il is simiiiir, in some respectSj to the liich- 
oiond co:il fields, bul; is disconnected by ihe inler veiling 
primary rocks. 

If we consult a map of (he United SlnicB, and murk 
upon the map ihe pnsit)on of iht^ooal- tieid to which refer- 
once has been made, we cannot fail lo notice ihe singular 
faci, ihat thereare three small iroiighs, formed in synclinal 
dips of the primary slates, and all lying widi (heir axes di- 
rected to ilie soutluvest, or neaijy parallel lo the present 
Atlantic coast. 

These troughs are now disconnected, and an examination 
of the series, their outcrops, &o. go lo show (hat each was 
formed in a trough by itself, and totally disconnected with 
each other. Each was formed in the bosom of its own sea, 
and each remarkably deep. The area? upon which Ihesa 
roclcs were deposited, have never siiffered from denudation, or 
from great fracture ; but are traversed by reioderaiely sized 
(rap dykes- The Richmond coal beds, have been disturbed 
more than (hose of Dan River, and the Dan River Ue in- 
•lined at a greater fmgie than Deep Hiver. 

When oui examinaliori is extended lo the Hudson and 
Connecticut Rivers, similar rocks are found. The sandstone 
is accompanied with con glome rales and slales. The latter, 
however, are hard , and retain the impression of the fish and 
fossils beiler than (hose of the Dan or Deep River. AU 
(hese beds of sandstone lie parallel lo each other. They are 
eompatafively long, but the breadth is inconsiderable. That 
these several isolated series represent one period, ia highly 
probable; (hough not geologically proved, 
10 



abyClOOgle 



146 

l^ourof lliese isolated (roughs are characlerised bv cut- 
bursts of the pyropiastic rocks, or igneous, TheTrnpor 
Palisades of l!ie Hudson ; the vaal fields mid mouiiinitis of 
Srap in tli« Coanecticut Valley, estendiog more ihiin a hun- 
dred and fifty niUes ; and (be heavy trap dykes of Deep 
Uiver, and ihe minor iiap dylses of the Dun, belong (o ona 
•ra. They ail cut Ihioug'i the simdsione and shiles, and 
send lateral bianchea of tbe once molien mass bolh between 
and upon the layers, baking and hardening thosa which ar« 
in contact or in prosimity with ihem. 

Oeologisis are now very much inclined to adopt the view 
that outbursts of igneous mtttrer, though ai distant points, but 
found upon and through ihe same f.'ini alien, happen al oit» 
and the same period. 

Proceeding still farther North, our atlenlion will be arrestetl 
again by a slill more extensive outburst of trap in Nova 
Scotia, it is not satisfactoiily delertnined whether the Iraps 
of Nova Scotia are connected with the new red sandstone?. 
Still, it seems to have happened at a period subsequent to the 
carboniferous ; and the trap lies upon, and has intruded 
iUelf into, a rock, whose mineral characters are similar to 
those of New Jersey, Deep River and Connecticut. 

Bill the foregoing remarks may be regarded as digi'essiona. 
My object in these remarks is, to identify age by tneaits of 
phenomena, and show that, when rocks possess characters in 
common, and where certain pher.omena are of the same kind, 
and are observed to be common to them also, it is an indica- 
tion that Ihe rocks belong to (he same period. 

It is remarkable, too, that all these troughs of red sandsloa* 
repose directly upon the primary rocks. The junction of 
(andslone with primary is very distinct at Blomidon, Nova 
Scotia, in the Connecticut Valley, in the Hudson River 
Valiey, in the Uichmond basin, the Dan River, and tlia 
Deep River. The most Southern troughs of red sandstone 
are the least dislurbed, and the smallest quantity of trap ha« 
been ejected. In Nova Scotia it has reached its maximum. 
The whole outburst has extended through twenty degreea of 
t&titude. 



abyCOOglC 



14T 

Wiiellier the foregoing facts do really prove that the 
fysteras me one m age, ant! belong fo the same period or not, 
may Blil! require proof. Tlie facts themselves are interesting. 
We may require many ndditioniit piiriiciilnra to enable lis to 
interpret phetiomena. aright, and assign to (hose sandstones 
and sLues their true oge. 

§ 101. The lowest mass upon she Dan River, which 
belongs to llie sandstone series, ia a conglomerale, quite im- 
perfect, at least, where it haa fuilen under my observation. 
At Leaksville, I have not seen the lower conglomeratea ; but 
al Germunion, an imperfect mass, occupying the lowest place 
in the series, ia formed of angular pins of granite, mixed with 
a griiy and reddish sedimeni, in very nnequai proporr 
lions. Its appearance might easily deceive an inattentive 
observer. U has an exceeding close resemblance to some 
varieties of granite. After a close inspection of many large rocks 
lying near (he small creek at this place, rounded pebbles 
were found ; and, by still farther search, roots of trees in 
beds of lignite were found, also branching into ihe rock. — 
This represents the fine beds of millstone on Ihe Deep River. 
The mass is thin, and of little importance. 

Immediaieiy above iliis bed of brecciated conglomerate, 
there is one of the finest exhibitions of an ancient forest in 
tins country. It consists partly of roots of trees changed into 
lignite, and piuily ol perfectly eilicified trunks of trees, exceed- 
ing two feet in diameter. The soil in which the majority of 
these trees grew, is still concealed. Segments of their trunks 
stand out of the soft rock, inclining at an angle lo the horizon, 
but lean in a direciion contrary to the dip of the rock. A 
road cuts through the strata in which the forest grew. All 
that remflins of it arc the trunks ; it was imposaible to find a 
]eaf or ateni of herbage or fruit. The softer and more per- 
ishable parts and organs are destroyed by unknown agencies. 
Perhaps some fortunate blow of the hammer may bring to 
light the leaves and fruit. The structure of these trunks 
prove them to belong lo the natural family of coniferffi, or 
(be family lo which the pines, spruces and hemlocks belong 



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148 

The trees extend for half a mile or more, and no one, o« 
se&ing the number, can donbt that here gicw a forest when 
the rocks were form iiig.— Similar trunks have been found at 
Madison, and pieces of Iruidts occur upon Deep Elver, near 
Evans' bridge, and nnoiher foret of the same character 
tipon Drowninp: Creek, in RichmonJ Couniy, They occn- 
P7 the same position in the aeries. Tliese trunks are geolo- 
gically important, and may be employed to assi&f m ideniify- 
ingihe system wiih any other at a distance. Numeroun 
fragments of trunks, a'so, occur in all the subseqnenl fonna- 
tiona, especially wiih lertiuriea, and in the superficial cutting 
for rail-wivys. I v^iis at « losa to account for their oi;currenc» 
in positions w he le ageiioies could not be supposed io exist, 
competent to silioify wood. I Eiave been aaiirftied lliat mosl 
of tiip scattered tfunks wera drsriveJ from the rat! sandstona 
formation. They hiivs been transported by river-*, and by 
Yariousaffancies, winch havo also ciirrieJ tho slate rocks, and 
deposited them in the graea sand, isnd the vudous stibsequenL 
beds ol the tcrliary. Their dlrcctio]i of transport is east- 
wardiy. 

^ 102. In connection with tiie etratal have described, (the 
breecittted conglomerate,) there occurs no clay or argilfacemis 
formation, which has a perfect concretionary siriictufe. Large 
concentric circles are formed ; some of which are two feet in 
diameter. This part of (he rock is estreiriely soft, and ia 
nothing more, nor less, than clay of a light green color. It 
33 rare to find a series of perfect coiioentric circles, and ter- 
minadng in a nucleus of the sizo of a two siiiiling piece, as at 
this place. They are due to moliculnr movements, which 
liave taken place, sabsequent to the tiina of deposition. W% 
are obliged, from phenomena of tins kind, to reckon mo- 
licutar force, as one of t'lo eilent geological forces, which 
have been inslriimenta! in eliecting important changes in tlta 
earth's crust. 



^ 103. These argillaceona beds lie beneath the i 
pflridslones of the formation, which consist of variegated anii 



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149 

gray masMs of. rock. They teiminnle wilh the coal shales. 
At Leiiksvil'e, a hard silicioiis slaic in(i;rvenes belvveeo iha 
lower beds of sandslone and ihe dales. I' is bkiieh and 
flinty, approat-iiitig, however; a sandBlono in ila coiuposilion. 
It ia al least iwo hunJred feet thict. U also contains a few 
layers, which externally re-emiile a Tiiisuire of carbonate 
oxytle of initi. Ir was in one of ihese layers, I discovered 
ihe fragments of (lie akoieion of a saurian. 

The niitlJIe part of this furnmiion of sandalona is occu- 
pied wiih a soft marly eiaie — the coal slate of the system. 
It differa in no respect, from ihat of Deep River, b.aiing the 
same fossils, I'le posiiionia and cypris, in equal abnndance,. 
through al! the strata, of which it is composed. 

The coal beds of Leaksville lie in tiiese slales ; (he bedi 
in which the coal seams are exposed are two iniles from tiis 
village, on ihe phmiaiion of Mr. Wade. 

The coal appears in a long ridge, rising about sixty feet 
above the meadow, which lies in ihe hend of the Dan, at 
this place. The following seciion is partially exposed m 
Wade's coal mine — 

1. Shale below the coal seams, 

2. Sh.'dy micaceous sandstones, Iwo feet. 

3. Shaly coal at the outcrop, eighteen inches 

to two feet. 

4. Micaceous shale, two feet. 

5. Goal, two to three feet. 
5. Shale, 110 feet. 

7. Seams of a hard blue miignesian lisiiealone, 

intermixed with eilex, four to six feel. 

8. Soft, green, bluish and black shales, filled 

with posidoRia, sixty feet. 

The shales stii! conlliiue covered with soil; the ihickiiesi 
of Ihe shales la iiol lees ilian five hundred feet. 

The Itard caicaieotis layers are separated by slale at !h« 



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150 

The calcareous layers lia above the ciml seiima, nnd as? 
Ihey exiend nearly if not eatirely through the formation, 
ihey may be observed as way boards iri searching for coal. 
The same layersappear in Miitiison, and contain abniidanct!. 
of scpiaria of the size of a goose egg. 

Dip of the CO 1 slates at the coal mine : N. 35° W.; fiirgls 
of dip 250;stribe S. SU° W. It is not improbable, th.U lb& 
angle of dip will diminish as the seam is psnetrated, 

^ 104. The section of rocks lying between Engle Bridge 
and Gov, Morehead'a facinry, is exhibited in the following 
section ; though, it. should be observed, that (he rocks airs 
concealed, at some points, between ilie bridge and fiictory. 

1. Sandstones and congloinerales, concealed at 

(he bridge. 

2. Flinty black slates, iv/o bimdied feel, with 

saurian vemains. 

3. Coalslaiea, consisting of the usuai green anil 

black ilaieSjWiih the poaidoniaanJcypris, 
and a few obscure species of plants, {Ly- 
copodiar.ae,) fifty I o six hundred fee). 

4. Red and gray sandstones. 

5. Conglomerates. 

6. Shaly and green variegated sandaione. 

T, Conglome rales, at least five hundred feel. 

These congiomerates are hard, and contain many ar.guioi' 
frag-menls, or those which are but siighiiy rounded; and some 
of these frag-menls are qniie similar to fhe flinty sliiie below. 
The beds resemble liard gray wnckes of New York, excepi 
that the masses of rnnnded quariz are much larger. The 
superior beds of sandstone occur at the factory, and havo 
lieen eraploj'ed as a building stone, 

§ 105. The series of eandaiones which lie between the 
bridge and the conglomerates, are better exposed upon Far.- 
lorv sreckj about four miles from Madison, on the road !o 



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151 

Martins' lime kilns. The latter predominates at tfiis local- 
ity. The craek has uncovered the striilji, for half a mile. 

The seciioti upon Fiicioiy creek is represenied by (hefoL- 
lowin^ainiia, ihe sinlte of which is S. HP W. dip 20°. 
1 Soft greenish slates and shales above ike 
coai aialea. 

2. Coarse sandstone with pebhles. 

3. Red and brown sandstones. 

4. Porous red sandsiones, or sandslone with 

angular cavities, similar lo those in other 
rocks, which have coittained a soluble 
salt. 

5. Green nnd gray hard sandstones, 

6. Ooarae sandstones containing rounded peV- 

hles. 

7. Cotiglotncratesaimitar to those at Gov. More- 

head's facfory, at Leaksville. 
8 SoiL snntistones, like the red marls. 
9. Slates with quartz veins, dipping beneath 

the sandstones. 
The thickness of the series above the coal 

slates, 13 beuvecn four and five thousand 

feet. 

At Madison, the series below the coal slates, on tho Kast 
side of (he Dan, at the new bridge, is represented by lh« 
following sscliuns : 

1. Gnaiss dippiriji bensiith iho sandstones. 

2. Soft variegated Siindstoiies, wiUi inic.i, and 

imperfectly bedded ; at leasi two hundred 
feet thick, east of the site of the bridge. 

3. About one thousand feet of green shaly 

sandstone, wish drab colored sandstone, 
interlaniinaled willi the seiies ; strike N. 
65° E. angle of dip 45°. 

4. Red sandstones, with cavities. 

5. Green and dark colored coal shales. 



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§ 106. The coal has been exposed about four i ehes from 
Germatilon, on Ihe planlatioti of Mr. MiUhewa, The alraU 
aa exposed, are urranged in ihe following older, 

1. Slate below. 

2. Fire clay. 

3. Coal, eighteen inches. 

4. Siaie, one foot. 

J. Coal, eighteen iocbes, 

6. Black slute, five feet. 

7. Sundstone and state. 

The codi at Ihe oaicrop is not pure, or it contains som« 
pyrites. Still, at a new localily on (iiisplantalion, discovered 
by Dr. McOlenahan, at the lime of our visit, the prospects 
are belter than at the sUaft, where the coal was first taken 
out. 

The attention, which has been given to the Dan River 
«oal field, has as yet been loo inconsiderable, to develope its 
riches. It appears, that fro.n Ijeaksville to Germanton, coal 
8 exposed at several points, besides at Ihe extremes of th« 
formation, leaving ontof view its extension into Virginia. 

§ 107. The foregoing descriptions of several snbortJinatB 
sections will convey to the reader a correct idea, (so far as 
description will convey,) of (he conglomerates, sandslonee, 
and slates of the Dan lliier coal field. From tlie observa- 
tions which I have made, I am inclined lo regnid ihe con- 
glomerate as the least constant mass, and Ihe most variabla 
in its characters. It exists at Gerniaiilon, but is imperfectly 
developed ; whilst al Madison, it is replaced by a soft niatw 
of (he rrd sandstone. 

At Leaksville, and also, not far from Madison, this seriei 
•contains some remarkable beds of bieeciated congionieratci 
which are probably absent or wanting upon the Deep River. 

The shales or marls, appear to be the most constant mass, 
II preserves its thickness and all its characters imchanged. 



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153 

&Bd moi5t, if not nU ihe subordinate beds, aie developed, botfe 
apon llie Dan and Deep Rivei*s. 

The fossils Jnviiriiiljlv iippeitr wherever the alales nre found ; 
iO, also, liie imjiiire Jijnestones, wiih rheir contiedons, ar« 
equally coiislant. lliough ihey are (juite inconsiderable in 
mass. In llie Dun River coiil field, ilip lower rock if fu!!j 
disclosed is much tbinner, and less iinporiaiit, ihaii the sains 
niMB in the Deep River, in whi(:li,as I baveulreatly observed, 
(he slates seem (o be equnl in importance in eitcli. The con- 
glomemies of Deep River are veiy prominent, and quite im- 
portant. 

Bill, if we compare the thickness of the 5aiii!sion^,,abov« 
the slntes,' ihey seem to be thicker, and more fully developed 
upon rhe Dan. I arn nlso inclined to eslimate the entire 
thickness of the t^anclstone senes, as greater on the Dan, (ban 
flpon the Deyp Kivcr. 



PRODUCTS Ot'THE UPPPER NEW" RED SYSTEM, 
OR TRIAS, OF THE DAK AND DEEP RIVERS. 



§ 108. 1. Frr.s Clay.— The fire clays of (be Trias are 
well adnplFd 10 ibe mandfiicture of firebricks. The days 
connecird with coal seains have long been used for (his pur- 
pose ; and hence Ihe name,.;??'e clat/. The ciays being freo 
i^om iron, lime, and magnesia, are highly refraclory in the fire; 
and henc^' are well adapied, from their compiisiiion, for ihe man- 
ufacture of such uvliclcs naaie required or designed to be subject- 
ed to a high heat. The seams of fire clay are, in a few iii- 
Btances, (en fee! thick ; — others are only two fee!. They are 
always found in seams, siibordinale lo the elate. Some 
seams of fire ciny do not bear coal at their otiicrop. The 
materia! is very fine and oven-grained ; the ailex is never 
coarse or concreiionaiy. The only obstacle which etande in 



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the way of raining this clay, is, that it often becomes hmd in 
llie deeper ])arts of (he seam. It is abundant upon the Dan 
and Deep Rivera, It is entirely disiinct from the ordinary 
clays of ihecoiinlry. [I is conlined to (his formLiiion ; and 
is, in facl, a subordinate part of it ;. and is never absent, it ii 
»aH, wlicreveracoat seam esisia : — thoiio^h it may occur, and 
coal beabssnf. It e.ppenra to be fins enough for ihn manii- 
facturo of articles much fiaer sban fire briclr. 

2, OxYDE OF Ikon, or Argillaceous Oarcomate or 
Iron,— The coal series appear to (uriiish always moie or lea 
of (his vfirieiy of iron ore. it occurs, usually, in nodules, 
from the size of an eg'g up to r barrel. Generally, their form 
is an ova! or flallencd sphera. The slrala are part 3 of iho 
coal series, andsubordinale tolhe foraiaiifn, and are depended 
upon, to a great extent, for the supply of ore for iron. Ilj 
quajiiies, espflcially whea manufactured with coal from tiia 
beds, is no! of t.h3.first order ; bul, as it is made into iroa 
cheaply, ii is valuable ore. 

3. Li.MssvoxK. — The limesiane, "which has hilherto beeo 
exposed m raining, is of an inferior qiiaiiiy, and only small 
in quantity. The layers do not exceed a foot in thickness. 
At the WilcDS Mine, and at an opening on the plantiuiou of 
Mr. Campbell, on Dosp River, layers of tolerably pure gray 
and ^raniilar limestone occur. 

The seams and ihm beds of limesione lying in and divid- 
ing the elaiCj is impure from siles, and is probabSy ntagno- 
sian. Hepsana are formed in tliia band, which, iaking iha 
whole, and including soma intervening siate, is from four to 
five feet (hick. It may serve a good p;irposa in iiiaking 
hydranlic lime, it should be tvicd. it occure at Le-jlisvitls 
ami Madiaon. The Deep River band, though itocciipies ap- 
parently the same position, seems to be more silicious than at 
the other places mentioned. When limesione is so scarce, 
ihe inferior kinds will pay for biirning ; and, as wood ia 
cheap, there can be little risk trying the lime at some of thi» 
localities, both for agricultural purposes, and iiydraulic ca- 
ment. 



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4. Plaster and Salt. — The first has noi been found at 
all, except in some few mslancea, in ilie teili-\ry clays. 

Tile sail is fretinenlly a mineral subordiniKe lo the rocks of 
litis series. It esisla. Some of ihe waters issuing from lliese 
sandstones contain a fmall quantity of aab, — mtiriafe of soda, 
or, moie propeLly, chlonde of aodiiim. 1 bave obtained it in 
small ci-ypials, by evaportiljon. Tlie question of l!ie exist- 
euoe of iniiriale of soda, in quantify, can only be seUled by 
boring, Tliere is one factwhioli seems to be unfavorable to 
Us presence in suiiicient qiiantilifis to become valuable, if 
ihe intlicatiotis are to be relied upon, li^e rocks were deposited 
in deep water ; and i( appears (hat salt or brine springs are 
more cominonly fonnd in those wiiich are formed undei" shal- 
low water, atid where the water ilaeif evaporates under ilia 
aun BuHoiKnily to cryEldl/ze out of the liqmd, and occasloii- 
BJly leaves ft large area uncovered vviih water. But, however 
ihis may be, boring ia jnsiiSabie ; and, as numerous places 
(lrekno^yn where v;ater furnishes sah, the expense aitenditig 
the operation will not form a serious objection to such a 
project. 

5. Fkee Stone.— B.'in and Deep Kivora bolb furnish, and 
may fiirnish, iueshausiibie qnanlilies of free slone, admirably 
adapted to all works of construction. The material is soft, 
when lirs; removed from the beds, and hence is easily wrought 
into sniiabla forms ; it hardens by espoeuro to the weather, 
and is therefore durable ; its colors are bright, and t!ie stone 
is therefore beautiful. 

" The tiisre Kad fitaf.ioiis of the times pi ve a preference to 
building eiones of this description ; but tiurabiliiy has also 
had something lo direct nnd settle public opinion. Cbnnney* 
IS hich have been built of these stones have stood for Cfty 
winters and summers; and yet their corners are as sharp i\3 
ever. Besides, it is not so subject to acquire inouidiness as 
granite. Granite, like some poor soils, encourages the growth 
of fnng;, br giving them potash, or the alkalis ; and lieace. 



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156 

buildinff, mnc\f> of smoolhly wrought granile, becomes dungj^ 
especially if shaded. Tlie expense of woildng free si one is 
miicli less than granile. Q.uurries may be opened on or near 
fhe navigable waieis. 

6. Grindstone. — The kind of alone which is prpdomin- 
ttiit is a sandstone. The grain la variable, from a coai'se te 
a very fine grit. Among ihe grits, ihat kind which is suit- 
able for griniJslones is common. The series below the coalj 
as well as those above, furnish ihem. Among ihegriia, I hava 
observed some very line ones upon (he sonih side of Deep 
River, not far from Mr. Campbell's. They appear lo be 
adapied !o the purpose of grinding finer cnlioty. Experi- 
ence, I beli' vc, proves die value of these stones for the ordi 
nary uses of the farmer, tiie grinding of axes, &c. 

Very liiiie alteiition, however, has been given (o inquiry 
respecliiur the best beds. Should a markef be opened, grind- 
stones of the best qualify can be obtained, '1 heir color is 
both brown and gray. Their grit is very sharp, ami ihegradei 
of hardness required for diflerent purposes may be easily sup- 
plied. 

7. Millstones. — I am not siifiicicntiy well informed, ai 
to whRt stale of perfeciion the niiilsiones of Deep River may 
be brought. They are among ihe best slones for grinding 
corn. Wfwther art can make them best, or as goo*] as the 
tVench burr stones, will be beiier determined by those ac- 
quainted wiih the iiianufaclory of (liem. than myself. They 
ore esleensed for corn, and ibis fact has given iheni creuil 
and a market to almost any extent ; and it will increase, pro- 
vided means of cheap iruneport are provided : as they can 
be furnished much cheaper than French burr ^lone, anil 

are equally good for some purposes. 

5 8. Shale. — The slate of the coal series, being fragiiej 
and easily decomposed, may be employed upon the soil, as a 
fertilizer. Ii is composed of alumina, silex, a Uttlc lime, 
phosphate of liniej and some potash. 



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16T 

Those Ifiyers, which abound in the cypris, and posidooia, 
ttre richest in phosphale of lime. 

The compo^ilion iidupfs the use of il fo sandy oi' loamy 
•oils ; and, though 1 do not venlure to reconimond thair frans- 
portaiion fitr, yet, on (he planiutions, whii-h have a poor soil, 
which are af'jaceiit to this marl, it will pay well foi' hauling. 
It shouid l)c grounJ ami sown freely, broad cast. These 
sUUes contain many hard ovai bodies, which consist of silica, 
lime and phosphute of lime: the latter, in the proporrion of 
more than one half. These long oval bodies are (he excre- 
ments of fiah, or liz irds, which swarmed in the sea, in ths 
days during the d.'posit of the system. 

The recommendatioa is I'Hcoiir iged on (he ground, (hat 
fertilizers are expensive in th.it roi^ion of country wlie e this 
formation exists; and if it s'limld be found useful, ihe 
souritry thratigh which rheae shales pass, can be supplied, (o 
my extent which is desirable. 

It is rare, (hat a formation, which looks so iinpiomlsing 
on lis first a. qanfanca, should turn out so rich in products, 
which will encourage indvtstry and confribute eo much to the 
advancement of wealth and prosperity. 

The B.iglish new red sandstone, which is cerlainly closely 
allied to this formation, supports no less than nineleen large 
eilies. It is true, that in that cnuiitry, rock salt is one of the 
prodiicfsof the red satidaions furniation, which hus been dis- 
covered here; but there i:^ coal, which is efiU better, and which 
eaii promote the wealth of the Dan and Deep Rivera, to a far 
greater extent, than salt alone. The climaie, and the 
health of ihe counlry, too, ia in its favor. Tho navigable 
watei*3, or thos? susceptible of being made so ; the value 
of the forests, in pines and oaks ; (he iron ; all of which 
mark the Caii and Deep River, places these distrirts, in a' 
position, equal to ihat of tlit, country referred to, and if that 
ean support and cherish the inhabitants of nineieen cities, 
cerlainly, (his formation should give origin at least (o four 
or five large and Nourishing towns. 
A careful survey of our own country, and others abroad, ao- 

•cmpauied with ku inquiry into (he causes of the rise of cilios 



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and towns, will probably show, tlmt those causes are mtiinty 
geological. It will show, Ihnt ihe products of the soil and the 
mine lie at the foiuulaiion of all the operaiioiia v.'hlcli have 
given rise to their establishiHent and subsequent prosperity. 
PitOliorg, in Pennsylvania, owes her origin to the iran 
and coal in her neigliborhood. Eflchester, in New York, 
owes her origin lo the peculiar rncka there, whoso coitaiitu- 
tion produces the Falls upon the CJenessee, at this place, and 
those peculiar rocks give Ihe surrouoding country a wheat 
loi!. Upon these fncis, Rochester has become one of tiie 
most flouiiahing cities in the Union ; and yet all these causee 
are geological. Deep Eiver and the Dan have all these ad- 
vantages and more. 



REASONS WHY THE NEW RED SANDSTONES 

OF THIS COUNTRY DIFFER FROM THOSE 

OF EUROPE. 



^ 109. The new red sandstone, in England, is underlaid 
by limestoneB, or calcareous rocks, to a greater or less ex- 
tent. Some ot" them are. magnesia ; and hence, in the series 
one of the members is strongly marked, and is known as 
the magnesia limestone. The origin and source of the 
materials appear to be entirely different; and hence, tha 
lithoJogica! character of ihs series; and new red sandstona 
is quite diflerent, at least in its subordinate parts. 



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159 

In the United Slates, the materials are deftcieut in lime and 
imagr esia ; and on account of the presence ofcertajn ujinevak 
(lifliiftfj in the wnlers, and forming deposits, nnd thereby 
imparling a character to the whole sea, — these circumstan- 
ces cannot ijil to iiifiuence both oniiiial and vegetable life^ 
The sea-bottom will fuvor, or it will be unfriendly to the 
existence of certain species. To facia of thia kind we 
may look for an espkiiatiori of certain modifications which 
are known to exist in liie fossils of (hose rucks. 

The tnarl slates resemble those of the Permian system. 
In Germany, they contain copper. Here, the.y are entirely 
deatitnie of copper. In olher. respects, they aie quite simi- 
lar. While it cannot be proved that rocks which contain 
the coal of Deep and Dan Rivers are Permian; sfili reasons 
are not wanting which favor this view : though the Rich- 
mond coal field is now regarded as belonging to the Oolite. 
I am, however, upori the whole, and on consideration of all 
the facis, inclined to adopt the opinion, that the whole 
series belongs to the upper new red sandstone. I ain 
stirs Ihe great abundance of coal favors the view that this 
series shonlci be regarded as Permian. So, also, the tooth of 
ihe Thecodoiitosaurus, or a saurian closely altied to it — but 
the most sbundant fossil, the po5idonia mimiia, (Goliff.) 
favors more strongly t!ie opinion I have adopted under lh« 
(existing facts. 



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MISCELLANEOUS KOTiOES OF MIA'ERAL DE- 
POySTS AND VEINS. 

Jron Ore. — In Nnsli County, I visiied a deposit of Iroa 
■wliich hiid bsen worked, but now jilwiidiKied. It resem. 
bles the bug oies ; should be clns^Oil w'th ilieni ; being 
simply a superficial depusir, of no great depth, 'Ihia, in 
fact, is of no viilua. it is one of ibuse fornuiUons which, 
1 believe, bas originnted from uneient minernl springs, 
whose waters were charged with bic«r!>iinGieuf inm; or an 
oxyde held in eoUition in a e;irbon;itcd wnier When 
combinations of iLis cbnracter reach the surfiice, the car- 
bonic acid escapes. When the iron is no longer soluble 
in water, it is precipitated upon the surface. There will 
then be found a deposit of oxyde of iron, iatermixed with 
clay, sand, &c. tioiiie o( these deposits may contiiio sufS, 
cient iron to become valuable; — ihls will not. The extent 
should ^'e deiunnined by sounding wilh a slendi;r hp.v of 
iron or steel, before eKpendiUiies are nutde. 

Magketic Oks, m Guh-ford CotiNTv. — Ma9;nPl'C ora 
of a fine(Hia!iiy, exists at Mr. C. Coffin's, ten miles from 
Greensbjro'. It is free from sulphale of iron. It had nut 
been examined, when I visited it, in a shaft. 7 he uurfacu 
ore presents a fuvorable indication of two or more veins of 
a fineqtiaiity. 

Specular Oas, on the Plantation of Wm. Jones. — 
This ore is also a fine kind of ibis species ; but its exlent 
has not been determined by actual exploraiioo. 



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Spkcular Oub on the Plantatfon op Mr, Glass. 
This iocalion is six ni'les north o( Evans's Milk. 1 regard 
this as the peroxyde, or ih« specular ore ; as it is un-mag- 
netie, and gives a red streak. It is abundant, and, bein^ 
in the vicinity of water power, it will come into use when 
the Deep liiver improvements are completed. 



STITira COPPER MINE, IN GUFLFOiiD. 

5 111. It has been known for a very long lime, that the 
auriferous pyi lies consisted in part of the siilphiirel of iron, 
and, in part, of the sulphuret .of copper. In extracting 
the goid from the stiiphurels, the latiee has been neglected 
and allowed to Sow away in the washings. Lately, how- 
ever, ntleinpls have been made, not only to save the copper 
of the auriferous pyrites, but to work the veins exclusively 
for copper. Stith's mine had been worked for its gold for 
many years; It was profitable ; but its owner, Mr. Fen- 
tress, had given np the business of working it for gold, and 
(t was Sying useless to him«elf, when Mr, Stiih proposed 
working the suiphurel for copper. Two shiil'ls hnd been 
sunk upon the vein, at a distance of 316 feet ; and, for 
some distance irom eacli shaft, the ore had been removed 
and worked for gold, '1 he vein runs N. 30 degrees E. ; dip 
N, W. Af the depth of almost 72 feel, the vein of pyrites 
is divided in to two, [aflat vein, which dips abontS degrees, 
and ft vein dipping between 60 and 70 degrees.] The flat 
vein consists of a gangue of quartz, arranged somewiiat 
in columns, and the vein of sniphurei, ranging in with from 
4 to 12 inches : the whole width ol the quartz and copper 
IS from 2| to 5 feet. This flat vein dips lowiirds the sleep 
dipping vein, and finally becomes incorporated with it, 
when it becomes the main and imporianC vein ai' liie mine. 

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163 

The progress of the w'ork becomes more and more favora- 
ble, and a fine vein of sulphmet of copper is likely to be 
disclosed, and, indeed, is so, by the present operaiions. 
The double suiphiirets are changed to the single suipKureta, 
and it is found to jield from 32 tn 40 per ctni. of 
copper. The mine is vahiabla, and its success will operate 
favorably in producing a change in the working of the 
auriferous pyi-ites. The probability is, i.iiat many others, 
in which the copper has been losl, from ignorance of the 
value of the substance, will be worked so as to save the 
copper, or to work them as coppor mines esclusivelv. 



LIMESTONE. 

§ 113. The gre!U value iMid- imporinnce of limestonu has 
created a demand for it, both as an article essential in con- 
struction, as well as in agriculture. In a very large part 
of North Carolina, this rock seems to be absent, and hence 
ii has been difficult to supply lime sufficient only to meet 
the ordinary wants ot the community. It has been always 
too expensive Jo warrant its empJoyment for agriculture, 
and much of the loss in agricultural products maybe at- 
tributed to the scarcity and expense of lime. Probably all 
the soils of this State will be beiiefiiled by the ippiicatiori 
of lime. I have visited oidy the two well known localities 
of limestone in Slokes, (he limestone belonging *o Mr. Mar- 
tin of , aiid Mr. Bolejack of Germanton, These 

beds of limestone belong to the pyro crystalline rucks. The 
stratification of Mr. Martin's beds is quite obscure, while 
that of Mr. Eolejack's is quite distinct. Both belong to the 
same kind of rocks. 



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163 

The thicknes;' of both exceeds forly feet, and !ie between 
strata of coarse (alcose slates — or talco-micaceous slate. 
Both beds make good lime. 7^hese beds may become in 
the hands nf enterprising men both profitable to tho owners ' 
and highly the useful to community. Mr. B jlejack's is located 
¥ery convei.iently ha cheap raining, and wood being abun- 
dant and cheap, I have no doubt it may be furnished at 15 
cents per bushei and perhaps 12^. At those prices the far- 
mer can aflbrd lo use lime. 

The beds seem to be in range with others crossing the 
Stale from N E. lo South West. 



SOME OF THE GEOLOGICAL CHAKACTERISTICS 
OF THE SLATES OF STOKES, SUKRY, &c. 



The predominant rock of these Counties is Talcose Slates 
with a variety which nnay be called talco- micaceous slate. 
The rock has the usual silvery lustre, and thin lamination, 
which is frequently undulating. The rock is generally cov- 
ered with soil. The ridges and mountains are sharp and 
narrow, and present in out line a singular and picturesque 
appearance. This is especially the case with ihe Pilot 
mountain. From Germanton and other points, it presents 
the appearance of a high isolated rounded knob, bearing 
upon its summit a square tower. Seen from the residence 
of its owner, Mr. Guillam, it becomes a sharp ridge sur- 
mounted by two piiinaeies — the eastern the greater of the 
two. The mountain sides are steep and precipitous. The 
pinnaclesare bounded by perpendicular sides. The highest 
and most prominent one is ascended by means of ladders, 
and rises about 70 feel above the crest of the mountain. 



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161 

These magnificent pinnacles have been formed by a very 
simple geological operation. The vocka were thrust up. 
wards in such a manner as to produce a decided curvature 
of the crest of the mountain, arid so much of a curvature, as 
to produce a cross fracture of the strain between the pinna- 
cles, which are 850 yards apart. The slow operation of at. 
mospheric agents have done the rest. These operatioos 
consisted in the disintegration of the softer slates, eifpecial- 
ly along the Hne of partnre between the pinnacles. The un- 
dermined Eirata form the debris of the mountain sides. The 
harder strata of the pinnacles have withstood the action of 
the elements, and will stand and bailie them for thousands o' 
years to come. The strata of the pinnacles differ from each 
other. Some of the strata consist of pure granular quarlz. 
especially those which form the pinnacles. These strata, 
however, should not be regarded as a sandstone, but simply 
a very quartzose variety of talcose slate. The Pilot and 
other mountains of the range belong to the first and most 
easterly of the Blue Ridge or Alleghanies ; but uniilre other 
ridges, they are steepest on the eastern .slope. The Pl- 
ot mountain is one of the greatest places in North Carolina. 
Nature has performed a work here, which seems to have 
been designed to give health jmd pleasure to those who have 
becomedebilitatedor worn down under the burning and sul- 
try atnaosphere of the South. It is a pity, when so lillla is 
left to be done, to make the Pilot a place of great resort, 
nothing but a rough path way and a few ladders have yet 
been contributed to promote objects of so much importance. 
The geological structure of much of North Carolina is char- 
acterized by low anticlynnl and sjnclynal axes. Some of 
the synclynal are deep and form troughs in which the coal 
fields lie. The axes are formed by normal dips, being equal 
OH both sides of the rounded ridge. 



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CONCLUSION. 

I have introduced a greater amount of elemeiilary matter ^ 
perhaps, than is required in a simple Report, designed (o give 
it statement o! what has been done to carry out the plan of 
the survey. I have done this because many oi tlie persons 
into whose hands this report will iail, wish something of ihe 
kind. Much o( Ihft eleraefilary matter of the foregoing re- 
port has been published before, but I have proposed to make 
adiiect application of these elements to the agricniture of 
the State. 

Ti.e Siateof North Carolina might be divided into two 
great districts, the A^ricidturcd ^ad Mining — the former 
embraces those Counties which lie immediately upon the 
Atlantic slope, extending to the fin t fall of the rivers, wliere 
ihey enter the tertiary formation. The latter embraces alt 
west of these fulls. While the former, however, is eminent, 
ly agricultura', the latter is both agricultural and mining. — 
Usually, a mining district is rough and comparatively un- 
productive ; here, however, while mining gives, or is capa- 
ble of giving, magnificent return, the agricultural is equally 
productive with other districts. The means of living are 
therefore cheap, and while a portion of its citizens are en- 
gaged in those pursuits which neither make a blade of grass, 
or potatoes grow, yet their labor always secures an abun- 
dnnceof bread and meatfrom the very surface beneath which 
the mineral wealth is drawn. 

In pursuing the work up lo the present time, I have 
scarcely touched upon the mining wealth ot ihe Stale. The 
most I have attempted to do, is to to develop the value of 
the coal mines. The gold, copper, lead and iron mines, 1 
propose to examine the ensningyear. 

It ia a remarkable fad, ihal, while lead and zinc are com- 
paratively rare, gold and silver are abundant. I had occa- 
sion to notice a fact of like kind, in my Report of the 



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\lif3 

Geolosy of New York. In ihe Nortliern Couniies of that 
Stale, iron is the great mining product ; it is accompanied 
will) neither copper, lead, zinc or goU. 1 mean that it pre- 
ponderates over every other melal. Iron occupies an im- 
portant place in North Carolina ; and I may here say thaj 
the advantages for making bar iron of the best quality are 
very great. The ore in the first place is abundant and of 
an excellent quality ; and in the second place, wood for 
charcoal is equally abundant, and as the growth of trees is 
rapid, fuel will never fail if system is observed in its cutting 
and preservation of young timber. The resources of the 
forest in North Carolina are immensej notwitiistanding a 
lerribie disease has infesteiJ certain portions of it for some 
time past. The famous long leaf pine is a magnificent 
tree of the forest. It yields its turpentine and rosiu in pro- 
fusion — one of the great staples of the South; its leaf makes 
an elegant hat, its cone an ornamental basket, its heart the 
most durable of posts, and its wood the cheerful fire and 
light, both of the kitchen and parlor. The great variety of 
Oaiis and Walnut are no leas important. The Tulip in beau- 
ty is rarely excelled, and the Magnolia among the trees of 
the forest is like a gigantic rose. 

The water power is also immense. The improvements 
on Deep River and Cape Fear will furnish water for sever- 
al Lowells. In fine, tlie elements of wealth and prosperity 
have been dealt out with a liberal hand, and its people have 
only to put forth their energy and eiiterprize, to stand with 
the first Stales in this repubiic. 



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DRIFT-DILUVUL ACTION". 



^116. In ihe Northern Stales and Otinada, the surface of 
the counlry is overspread with a coating of soil stones, giavel 
boulders, etc., which are foreign la spots and phtces upon 
which they now real. These nuitecials have been Iranspott- 
ed from distant points, either North, or Northeast, from the 
spots we now find ihem, and, in many cases, more than one 
hundred miles ftom iheir parent beds. I wish merely to al- 
lude to Ihis fact. It is a practical one"; for, as the surface haa 
not been disturbed, and as the disintegrations of rocks have 
gone on quietly, the debris remain in place. Hence, a mass 
of iron ore, or of copper, gold, etc., which lies upon the sur- 
face and in the debris, the parent bed or vein of each, will be 
found below, or at most, but a short distance from the spot ; 
wheieaa, at the North, it is common to find a mass of iron ore 
which is one hundred miles from its bed or vein. In llie lat- 
ter insiance, we know only the direction the mass has beea 
transported. In North Carolina, we may always expect to 
find the ore in the immediate vicinity in which it is found, 
except in those cases where the loose mass has been removed 
by aqueous causes now in operation. 



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168 

[As I was unable to incorporatt: the observaiiooa and remarks 
of Dr. McCJenahan, one of my assislanls, with my own, 
1 deem it proper to give ihem a separate place in the re- 
port. They are, as wdl be seen, addressed to nie in tlie 
form of a letter. They were made during my absence 
from the field, and while engaged in the laboratory :] 

LETTtlR OF l)a. McCr.ENAHAN. 

Dear Sir : 

After parting with you at Gold sboro ugh, and arri- 
ving on the Coal Field, I commeneed the survey of the 
underlying sandstone, at Captain Elias Bryan's, on the 
Deep River, one mile above Haywood. The dip at that 
point Is South, 45 degrees East, at an angle of 20 degrees : the 
Strike South, 45 degrees West. The sandstone and con- 
glomerate are both properly exposed at this pliice, the sand- 
stone resting immediately on die conglomerate. I commen- 
ced by running South, 45 degrees West, to Woinble's : thence 
across the Haywood road, by Mrs. Gilmour's : thence by 
Mrs. Beddle'i : thence due West, to Malhew Wicker's, (dis- 
tant from the starting point, ten miles) : thence North, 35 
degrees West, crossing the river, to Wiitsoii's, on the North 
side of the river : thence North, 70 degrees West, to Burns' 
Spring : thence due West, by J. Hasley's : thence South, 
50 degrees West, by Richard Dowd's : thence South, 5S de- 
grees West, by John Dowd's : thence South, 45 degrees 
West, crossing Indian Creek just above William Haya' : 
thence South, 50 degrees West, to Deep River, in Mrs. 
Street's plantation : tlience South, 60 degrees West, crossing 
the river to the mouth of Wiitiam Hancock's lane, in Moore 
county; thence South. 45 degrees West, to Sewel'squarrj' 
of conglomerate : thence by Davis' quarry : thence by Neil 
Dunlap's : thence by Allen McDaniel's : thence by Jesse 
Thomas', on Drowning Oreek, in Montgomery county : 
thence South, 60 degrees' West, by Calvin Rush's, on Moun- 
tain Creek : thence South, 45 degrees West, by David Har- 



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riss' : thence by Lucaa' store: thence by John C. Cham- 
bers' : iherice across Lktle River, two miles above Steel's 
bridge, in Richmond county : thence across Pe-Dee River, at 
the mouth of Brown's Cicek, iu Atisori county . thence up 
the Northwest side of Brown's Creek, by the Carolina Col- 
lege : thence South, 60 degrees West, to the South Caiohna 
line, in the Southeastern.corner of Union county. 1 took 
cross sections, at nearly nil the public roads which crossed the 
sandstone transversely, and found it varyine in width, from 
six to fourteen miles. I frequently got the dip where the 
stone was well exposed, and it varies from 10 degrees to 60. 
1 also made cross sections fiom sis coal pita, oul to the out 
ci'op of the underlying sandstone, and found it varying from 
one mile and three-fourths, to three miles : the greater the 
dip, the shorter the distance. 

After running the line, to iheSouth CaroUna linej I return- 
ed to the starling point (C'upi, K, niyan's), and commenced 
running Northeast, across Deep and Haw Rivers, one mile 
Northwest of the town of Haywood ; thence North, 30 de- 
grees Bast,by Willam Crump's and WiUiaraBtand's ; thence 
by Neill Womble's, inwhoseiield the conglomerate is well ex- 
posed : thence by Mrs. Amsled's, on New Hope Creek: 
thence across the creek, by William Clark's, Thos. Womble's, 
John Bland's, Causby Stone's, in whose plantation it again 
crosses th-e Creek ; thence up the Northeast side of the Creek, 
but occasionally crowing and re-crossing, by Mooriog's, by 
Herndon's old store, in Orange county : thence by Pratt's 
store, crossing the Central Railroad half a mile Northwest of 
the store : thence across Eno and Plat River, in Benehan'a 
plantation ; after which, it could be but indistinctly (raced. 
Although this is the'direction of the great body of the stone, 
there is, occasionally, points which run off in various direc- 
tions : one of the principal points which make off in this way, 
is one that continues up iVew Hope, to Morgan's creek, and 
up that creek to within two miles of Chapel Hill. 

There is a formation of sandstone on Tau River. I saw it 
at Thus. Miller's plantation, six or seven miles Southwest of 
Oxford, I had understood that coal had been found there : 



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170 

but, when I examined the spot, which is in the river bank, I 
found it to be lignite. I have samples of it in Raleigh, and 
also of the micaceous sandstone in which it is embedded. My 
attention has been frequently cfiiled to ihe subject of lime, 
and I have been frequeully told, that there was limestone on 
certain lands, which 1 was going to examine ; but, as yet, I 
have not been enabled to discover lime ir. sufficient quantities 
to render it of much value, East of Germantod. 1 have seen 
small deposiles of limestone in the upper stratiimof what I 
have called the newer red sandstone, t found it ut Mr. Fow- 
ler's, in Chatham, near Mooring's, and on the Hillsborough 
road, near Brassfield's, sixteen miles from Raleigh, and in 
Granville county, on the planlalion of Mr. Wortham : it is in 
greater abundance ftt this point than at any I noticed. Mr. 
Wortham has hauled out on his farm a considerable quantity 
of it, and informed me that the land on which he spread it, 
produced much better. Lime in great abundance, and of 
excellent quality, is found stretchini; across the State, from 
Danbury, in Stokes county, to King's Mountain, in South 
Carolina. I saw it al Williams' kiln, on the Yadkin, at 
Poff's, ten miles above Salem, alHoosertown, at Germanton, 
and at Martin's, near the Virginia line. I procured a piece 
near Germanlon, at Mr. Bolejack's, which is an excellent 
marble, and receivesafine polish. The quantity of limestone 
at this point, appears lo be inesliaustibie, and of goixl 
qiiahty ; in fact, all the lime I saw at ail the kilns appeared 
to be of good quality. I have procured samples of the alone 
from a(l the kilns, for your inspection. This section of the 
State abounds in iron ore of good quality, I have specimens 
from several places. Magnetic iron ore of good quality is 
found two miles West of the Pilot Mountain, on the lands of 
Mr, Guillam, I examined the place and saw it scuUered over 
a large surface. 

After examining the hmestone, I commenced the survey of 
the coal field on the Dan River. I commenced at German- 
ton : the out crop of sandstone is near that place. The dip 
is Northwest, at an angle of 35 degrees, and Ihe strike North- 
east, 1 was able to trace the out crop of sandstone as far a"* 



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171 

Madison, and have procured samples of the coal and slate, at 
various points ; but, in consequence of high waters, 1 was 
unable to ascertain ihe thickness of the coal seam. The fos- 
sils are of 'he same kind we find on the Deep River, btil ihe 
coal is anthracite. I should have continued the survey down 
to Leaksviile, or aa far as the coa[ continued in the Stale, hut 
for high waler. 

The out crop of black shale, on the coal Held, is in greai 
abundance, and the direction of the seams cail easily be tra- 
ced from one end of the field to i he other, with the appropriaie 
fossils, in great abundance. I found but few points on the 
Deep River coal field, South of Deep River, where the shale 
could be easily traced. I found it on Drowning Creek, in 
Montgomery county, about one mile Northwest of the sand- 
stone, which contains lignite : the dip at this point is not 
, more than 10 degrees. I also found it al. the Pe-Dee River, 
on (he planlation of Mrs. McCloud. 

After parting with you at Halifax, I visited the Northwes- 
tern corner of Edgecombe county, for the purpose of ascer- 
taining the truth of what I had heard of a large skelelon 
which was embedded in Fishing Creek. I ascertained it to be 
the jemains of an enormous whale, some of the vertebrae of 
which measnied tweniy-lwo inches in diameter. Ithad been 
so much raulilated, that I was deterred from attempting to 
dismter but a small portion of it. I learned from ihe genile- 
man, who owns the land in which it is embedded, Ihat the 
largest portion of the bones had been taken away by various 
persons, some of whom lived at a great distance ; and he also 
informed me thai a large number of the bone's had been 
washedawayby the "fresheis." I ascertained, by finding 
one or (wo vertebras in place, I hat the animal had been deposi- 
ted on his back, and as the wa(er is not more (ban two or 
three feet above the vertebrfe, which is just covered with marl 
and sand, I could readily account for the absence of all the 
rihs, by freshets, \i'hich swept ihem down the stream. 

This aniiTial is lying on a bed of marl, /^hich is twelve or 
fifi:een feel thick, and the silicious shelly limestone, which is 
found between the green sand and shell marl, is just above 



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172 

the remains : above that is a bed of yellow sand and shell 
mari, which is about seven o'c eight feet thicli. Mr. Knight, 
the gentleman who owns the lands, told me that there was a 
portion of the head still embedded in the bank, and but for 
the rise which look place m the creek, while 1 was (here, I 
should have procured it. The animal lay dif^oiially acioss 
the creek — ^the head in Edgecombe and the tail in Halifax, 
the c'ceek being the line dividing ihe two counties. I pfcked 
up a good many of the bones, and requested Mr. Knight to 
take care of them (or me, which he promised to do, and gave 
me the balance, if 1 could procure them. I procured some of 
the marl below the remains, and some of the upper bed, which 
is above it. I also procured a specimen of the shell rock, 
which is between the two beds. 1 have a piece of tlie jaw- 
bone in Raleigh, which I got out of the water near the spot 
where Mr. Knight told me (he head was embedded in the 
bank. 

After passing over the tertiary system, which continues, in 
the direction to Raleigh, abouttwenty-five miles above Nash- 
ville, I discovered the primary slates, talc ose and micaceous, 
with a great many quartz veins running through them, show- 
ing strong indications of gold. The dip of these slates is to 
the South, 70 degrees East, at an angle varying from 25 de- 
grees to 60 degrees; the strike South, 20 degrees West. 
After passing over this formation, I came to a formation of in- 
ferior granite, composed chiefly of feldspar and quartz, with 
a very small proportion of mica. This stone readily dis- 
integrates when exposed to the frost, producing a coaise gra- 
velly Soil, which is an excellent land for corn, cotton and oats. 
This granite gradually increases until it reaches Raleigh, 
where it has a sufficient amount of mica to form a very good 
building slone. At Raleigh, the dip of the slate is changed 
from Southeast to Northwest, at angles varying from 25 de- 
grees to 80 degrees ; in fact, the dip near the Plumbago veins, 
four or five miles Northwest of Raleigh, is nearly perpendicu- 
lar. The strike being South, 20 degrees West. I have pro- 
cured specimens of this gruphitefor your inspection, from 
several points: some oi itiaof good quality, but the most 



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173 

of it that I s!iw was out crop, and, therefore, was full of 
dirt. I tbink these veins of graphite, by proper manage- 
ment, might be made immensely valuable, I should expect 
to find the mineral of much better quality, after goiiio; 
down to water scale. The slratiim of Plumbago is of good 
size, from all appearances, but I vvas notable to measure it 
with accuracy, in consequence oC (he pits being filled with 
water- 

I visited Mr. iohnaon Bnsbee's, ten miles Soulhoast of 
Raleigh, where there are strong iiidicalions of marl. I found 
there the silicious shelly limestone, scattered over a large 
surface, the same which we have usiinily found between 
the green sand and shell marl. I have a piece for your ex- 
amina'ion. This poiof, I think, should be particnlarly ex- 
amined. Marinas far up the country as this, would be very 
valuable, in consequence of the scarcity of lime in that sec- 
tion of the State- 
There IS lignite in the Cape Fear River, about eighteen 
miles above Fayetteville, on Silver Run creek, and the 
sandstoiie, in which it is embedded, resembles that at Eliza- 
beth, which we found between the two beds of marl. At 
this point is also found petrified wood. I think ycpu would 
Und this neighborhood an interesting one for examination, 
and the citizens are exceedingly anxious you should visit 
them, for that purpose. 

I have samples of iron ore procured at various points in 
Cumberland county, which is all very silicious; probably too 
much so, to be of much value. 

fhe above, I believe, constitutes all the information I 
have been able to procure during your absence. You will 
please examine the contents, make corrections of any mis- 
take, and use It as yon may think most advisable. 
I remain your obedient servant, 

S.McLENAHAN. 
Professor Emmons, 

State Geologist. N. C. 



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APPENDIX. 



1 have been obliged to refer to (lie different sj'slems of 
rocks, in the foregoing report. I am induced, llierefore, to 
fiirnisli a tabular view of those systems, that the reader may 
be able, at a glance, to see the relations in which they stand 
to each other. I make three principal classes of rocks, which 
hold an equal rank. These three classea are subdivided- 
These subdivisions are based upon fuels and phenomena, 
which are peculiar to each, and on characters which are not 
common to each division. The names of the principal classes 
are new, and are simply expressive of facts, upon which all 
geologists are agreed . 

The three elates : 

I. Pyrocrysfalline — crystallized by the agency of 
fire. Primary of authore. 
II. Pyroplasuc^nioulded by fire. Ancient and 
modern volcanic-rock of authors. 
HI. Plydroplastic — moulded by water. Sediments 
of authors. 

The first class is divided into two sections : 

1. Unstratified pyrocrystalline,atigranile, Hyper- 

thene rock, pyrocrysiailine limestone, sie 
nite, magnetic iron ores, 

2. Stratified pyrocrysiathne gneiss, mica slate, 

talcose slate and hornblende stealiie. 

The second class is divided in two sections, also : 

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1T5 

1. Modern pyroplastic rocks, lavas, iiifls, pumice 

and all tiie products of voicauoes, which are 
cooled in the air. 

2. Ancient pyroplastic rocks, the ancient lavas, 

cooled under water, basall, porphyry and 
green stone. 

The third class is divide i into systems^ most of which are 
admitted by geologists of ihe day. 

The systems belonging lo the class of hydropliistic rocks, 
the consolidated and loose sediments, aie exhihiled in the fol- 
lowing table : 

/. Tertiary system : 
1. Posiphocene. 
3. Pliocene; 

3. Miocene. 

4. Eocene. 

//. Cretaceous system : 

1. Upper cretaceous, incliidiiig the true 

chalk, with flints. 

2. Lower creiaceous, including the 

green s ind, iron sands, &.c, 
///. Wealdcn, unknown in the U. S. 
IV. Oolite and Lias. 
V. New red Smulstone oj- Trias : 

1. Upper, 

2. Mid ale. 

3. Lower. 

VI. Permian system. 

VII. Carbm.iferoussyitiim. 

VIII. Devonian system. 

IJC. Silurian system : 

1. Upper. 

3. Lower. 

JC. Taconie system. 



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176 

The tenth is the oldest of ihe sedimenta , and is more cioae- 
\y aUied to the piimary or pyrocrystalline slates, Hmes, ores, 
etc. Any of the foregoing systems may rest on the primary, 
and any of the foregoing may be traversed by the unatralified 
pyrocrystalline rocks ; particularly granite, which is ihen said 
to be of the age of the deposit in which it is found. As any 
of the foregoing systems may rest npon the primary, so either 
may form the surface rocks over large areas. 



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a LOSS A E I 



OF SCIEi^TinO TEKMB USED LN THIS REPORT, 



Amorphous — shapeless, desfilitte of a regular fonn. 
Arenaceous — SLiudy, composed of SEmti 
Argillaceous — composed of clay. 

Uiisalt — a lock mostly homogeneous, of ai'i igneous origin, 

and cooled under water. 
Basin — a depression in the strata, of a eircuiar form. 
Eelemiijte — a fossil of acylindrical ibrm, tapering rapidly 

to a point, and at one end or the other it haa a conical 

cavity : it is the bacfc-boue of an extinct animal, allied 

to the cuttle fish. 
Bitumen — a combustible substance, combined with coal. 
Breccia — acorapound rock, consistingof angular fragiiients. 

Calcareous — bearing or containing lime. 

Calcedony — a compact variety of quartz, of a iiiiltcy whita- 

Uarbon-— the eioment of charcoal 

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Carboimte vt Lime— a coinpoiuici of carbonic acid and 

lime. 
Carboniferous — coal bearing : a term applied to a systeiH 

of rocks which bear coal. 
CeCacea — an order of animais, of which the whale is Che 

type. 
Chei-t — a variety of amorphous quartz, much like flint. 
Concretion — a union of particles, forming rounded and oval 

bodies. 
Conformable — n term applied to strata, which lie parallel 

with each other. 
Coflglomerate — A rock composed of rounded pebbles, 

formed under water. 
Conifers — trees which bear cones, with naked seeds, as 

pines and the fir. 
Cretaceous — belonging to chalk : the name of the system 

to which common chalk belongs. 
Crustacea — an order of animais which are provided with 

a crust or external integument similar to the lobster 

and ccab. 

Dikes, or Dykes— a vein of rock or stony matter, which 

has been injected into a fissure, while in a melted 

state. 
Diluvium — a term which was applied to a stratum, which 

was supposed to have been spread over the earth by 

the deluge. 
Dip — strata, when inclined to the horizon, are said to dip. 

ilocene — dawn of the present : a term applied to the old- 
est of the tertiary deposits. 

ISscarpment — the steep side of a iiill. 

Estuary — the mouth of a river, which is occupied, in p3,rt 
by fresh, in part by salt, water, or by brackish water. 

Faults— the dislocation of strata, by which one side is ele- 
vated above the other. 

HosteabyCOOglC 



1T4 

Fauna — the aggregate of the .iiiunals which inhnbit ccv- 

tain districts. 
Formation — a series or group of rockSj which belong to 

one period. 
Fossils — the remains of animals and plants entombed in 

rocks. 

Gypsum— -a rock or mineral, composed of oil of vitriol and 
lime. 

Ill condescensu — minerals or rocks, in a state of fusion. 

Lamiiiated~a minerai or rock, composed of thin plates. 

Lias— supposed to be derived frem layers: a system be- 
tween the oolite and new red sandstone. 

Lignite — wood carbonized or changed partly into coal. 

Lithological — denotes the stony characters of a mass. 

Littoral — belonging to the shore. 

Loann — a mixture of sand, clay and vegetable Biatler. 

Lycopodites — a fossil plant, allied to club masses or ground 
pines. 

Mammalia— animals which furnish glands for the se- 
cretion of milk. 

Mammoth—an extinct thick-skinned animal, allied to tJis 
elephant. 

Marl — a mixture of lime and clay. 

Mastodon- see mammoth. 

Miocene — the middle deposits belonging to the tertiary- 

Molusca — an order of animals generally covered with shells, 
as the oyster and clara. 

Nodule — a rounded mass. 

Out crop"-the appearance of the edges of rocks at llis sur- 
facR. 



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181) 

Oxygen — a gaseous bod;', which is essential : it cliangps 
the blood from a black to a scarlet color, in respiration; 
combines) with metals, and forms a class ofbodies calL 
ed oxides, etc, 



Pachydermata — an order of iinimals with thick skins, as 
the elephant, hog, tapir, hcTse, camel. ' 

Palffionlology — the scisoee which treats of extinct animals 
and plants. 

Porphyry — an igneous rock, cooled beneath wafer, and 
which contains irregular pieces oi feldspar. 

Pyrites — sulphur and iron in combination. 

Rodentia — an order of snimala, supplied with front cni.liiig 
tcethj similar to the sqiiirrel and rabbit; gnawer as the 
rat. 

Ruminants, Kiiminantia — an orderof animals which chew 
the cud, as cow, sheep, deer. 

Saurian — a lizard-like animal. 

Schist — a rosk made of three parallel layers. 

Sediments, Sedimentary-— mud, sand, etc., deposited under 

water. 
Septaria nodules— composed of clay, lime, etc., divided into 

parts or partitions of crystalline matfer. 
Shale — indurated clay. 
Silex — silica, flint: 
Stratified — divided into lay era. 
Strike — the line of the bearing of rocks \yhich lies at a right 

angle to their dip. The ridge-pole of a house shows 

the strike: the inclination of thereof, the dip; and it 

forms, in this illustration, an anticlynal axis. 
Syenite — a variety of granite, in which hornblende takes 

place of mica. 
Synclynal Axis-—- the reveiise of anticlynal, when (he strata, 

on two sides, plunge towards each other, or to a line 

below their out crop. 



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Trap — volcanic rocks. 

Yeins — Fissures filled with mineral matter, diiferiiig from 
the rock in which the fissure has been found. 

Unconformable Strata — reposingupon the edges of strata 
or when the layers are not parallel to each other. 



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ERRATA. 

In section 30, instead of reading "Indian Corn," kslA 
Cotton. 

In section 27, instead of ?65 per acre, read $15 per acre ; 
and instead of " two laborers," read " twelve laborers." 

In section 28, fourth iine from the bottom of the para- 
graph, for manures read measures. In same section, third 
line from the bottom of the paragraph, for prepared read 
purchased. 

[The Public Peinter thinks it probable that some typo- 
graphical inaccuracies occur in the foregoing report. 
The unavoidable absence of the author, in the prosecution 
of his labors, devolved upon the publisher the duty of re- 
vising the proof-sheets. His want of familiarity with most 
of the technical terms employed, renders it probable (hat 
errors exist, so far as those terms are concerned.] 



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